The Health Impacts of Fasting During Ramadan

Document Type: Short Communication

Authors

1 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

2 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Abstract

Ramadan is the Holy month of fasting that is obligatory for all normal Muslims who reached at their puberty. Two meals are taken during Ramadan, one is taken before down to prepare themselves for fast is called “Sahur”, and second meal is taken at sunset is called “Iftar”. Fasting is not only a ritual and religious obligation while it has several medicinal significances specially against diet dependent diseases. Fasting significantly helped in the reduction of peptic and duodenal ulcers with the combination of H2-blocker drug, help in the improvement of lipid profile specially in TC and HDL and LDL levels that cause heart failure. During fasting the systolic and diastolic blood pressure improve at greater rate as compare to drugs like Indapamide and Perindopril, a  strong evidence revealed that ischemic stroke and cancer can also be improved by intermitted fasting through multiple pathways and factors like BDNF, bFGF, GRP78, Hsp70, tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB), fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), and ketosis respectively The aim of this paper is to systematically review the published literature regarding the effect of Ramadan on the above mentioned diseases.

Keywords


  1. Bukhari-Ibn-Ismail, AbdAllah-Muhammad." Sahih Bukhari – Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 124. Available at: (http://hadithcollection.com/sahihbukhari/64Sahih%20Bukhari%20Book%2031.%20Fasting/2466-sahih-bukhari-volume-003-book-031-hadith-number-124.html) on 13 June 2012
  2. Al-Arouj M, Assaad-Khalil S, Buse J, Fahdil I, Fahmy M, Hafez S, et al. Recommendations for the management of diabetes during Ramadan. Diabetes care 2010;33(7):8-12.
  3. Gokakin AK, Kurt A, Akgol G, Karakus BC, Atabey M, Koyuncu A. Effects of Ramadan fasting on peptic ulcer disease as diagnosed by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Arab J Gastroenterol 2012;13(3):180–183.
  4. El Bahay el Kholi. Fasting (Al Siyam); 1998. p. 18.
  5. Anton SD, Moehl K, Donahoo WT, Marosi K, Lee SA, Mainous AG, et al. “Flipping the Metabolic Switch: Understanding and Applying the Health Benefits of Fasting”. Obesity 2017;26(2):254–268.
  6. Kul S, Savas E, Öztürk ZA, Karadag G. Does Ramadan fasting alter body weight and blood lipids and fasting blood glucose in a healthy population? A meta-analysis. J Relig Health 2014;53(9):929–942.
  7. Rahman M, Rashid M, Basher S, Sultana S, Nomani MZ. Improved serum HDL cholesterol profile among Bangladeshi male students during Ramadan fasting. East Mediterr Health J 2004;10(1-2):131–137.
  8. Sadeghpour SH, Keshteli AH, Daneshpajouhnejad P, Jahangiri P, Adibi P. Ramadan fasting and digestive disorders: SEPAHAN systematic review No. 7. J Res Med Sci 2012;17(Spec 1):150-158.
  9. Lee C, Raffaghello L, Brandhorst S, et al. Fasting cycles retard growth of tumors and sensitize a range of cancer cell types to chemotherapy. Sci Trans Med 2012;4(2):124-127.
  10. Fann DYW, Ng GYQ, Poh L, Arumugam TV. Positive effects of intermittent fasting in ischemic stroke. Experimental Gerontology 2017;89(45):93–102.
  11. McCue MD. Comparative Physiology of Fasting, Starvation, and Food Limitation. Sprin Sci Bus Med 2012;p:15.
  12. Lanas A, Chan FK. "Peptic ulcer disease". Lancet 2017;390(10094):613–624.
  13. Bener A, Derbala MF, Al-Kaabi S, Taryam LO, Al-Ameri MM, Al-Muraikhi NM, et al. Frequency of peptic ulcer disease during and after Ramadan in a United Arab Emirates hospital. East Mediterr Health J 2006;12(1-2):105-111.
  14. Mehrabian A, Homayouni R, Hashemi M, Moradi A. Is healing of duodenal ulcer delayed by Ramadan fasting? Koomesh 2007;8(2):67-72.
  15. Attarzadeh Hosseini SR, Motahari Rad M, Hejazi K. The effects of Ramadan fasting and physical activity on body composition and hematological biochemical parameters. J Fast Health 2014;2(3):96-103.
  16. Langsted A, Freiberg JJ and Nordestgaard BG. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels: influence of normal food intake on lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and cardiovascular risk prediction. Circulation 2008;118:2047–2056.
  17. Ziaee V, Razaei M, Ahmadinejad Z, Shaikh H, Yousefi R, Yarmohammadi L, et al. The changes of metabolic profile and weight during Ramadan fasting. Singapore Med J 2006;47(5):409-508.
  18. Abdel-Aziza WF, Soltana GM, Amer AMA. Comparison between fasting and nonfasting lipid profile in patients receiving treatment with statin therapy. Menoufia Med J 2017;30(3):614–618.
  19. Shehab A, Abdulle A, El-Issa A, Al-Suwaidi J, Nagelkerke N. Favorable changes in lipid profile: The effects of fasting after Ramadan. PLoS One 2012;7(4):e47615.
  20. Dewanti L, Watanabe C, Sulistiawati, Ohtsuka R. Unexpected changes in blood pressure and hematological parameters among fasting and nonfasting workers during Ramadan in Indonesia. Eur J Clin Nutr 2006;60(7):877–881.
  21. Samad F, Qazi F, Pervaiz MB, Kella DK, Mansoor M, Osmani BZ et al. Effects of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure in normotensive meals. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2015;27(2):338–342.
  22. Laurent S. Very-low-dose combination of perindopril and indapamide: efficacy on blood pressure and target-organ damage. J Hypertens Suppl 2003;21(3):11–18.
  23. Weber JT. Altered calcium signaling following traumatic brain injury. Front Pharmacol 2012;3:60-63.
  24. Léger JM, De-Bleecker JL, Sommer C, Robberecht W, Saarela M, Kamienowski J, et al. Efficacy and safety of Privigen(®) in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: results of a prospective, single-arm, open-label Phase III study (the PRIMA study). J Peripher Nerv Syst 2013;18(2):130–140.
  25. Longo VD, Mattson MP. Fasting:molecular mechanisms and clinical applications. Cell Metab 2014;19(4):181-192.
  26. Amigo I, Kowaltowski AJ. Dietary restriction in cerebral bioenergetics and redox state. Redox Biol 2014;2(1):296-304.
  27. Desai A, Singh N, Raghubir R. Neuroprotective potential of the NF-κB inhibitor peptide IKK-NBD in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Neurochem Int 2010;57(4):876-883.
  28. Marinac CR, Nelson SH, Breen CI, et al. Prolonged Nightly Fasting and Breast Cancer Prognosis. JAMA Oncol 2016;2(1):58-71.
  29. Safdie FM, Dorff T, Quinn D, et al. Fasting and cancer treatment in humans: A case series report. Aging 2009;1(1):988-1007.
  30. Benera A, Yousafzai MT. Effect of Ramadan fasting on diabetes mellitus: a populationbased study in Qatar. J Egypt Public Health Assoc 2014;13(2):2446-2503.