The Simultaneous Effect of Aerobic Training and Octopamine on the Mitophagy of Brown Adipose Tissue after Induction of Intoxication through Deeply Heated Oils in Male Wistar Rats

Document Type: Review Article


1 PhD Student, Department of Physical Education, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran

3 Associate Professo, Department of Physical Education, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran.

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran.


Introduction: Deep heated oils produce toxins that endanger people's health. The current study aims to investigate the simultaneous effect of aerobic training and Octopamine consumption on the mitophagy of brown adipose tissue after the induction of intoxication through deeply heated oil in male wistar rats. Method: 40 male wistar rats after four weeks of feeding with heated oil were randomly assigned into control-intoxication (CI; n=8), exercise training-intoxication (ETI; n=8), supplement-intoxication (SI; n=8), supplement-exercise-intoxication (SEI; n=8), and healthy-control (HC; n=8).  The exercise-training was done for four weeks at intensity of 50-65% vo2max for 20 minutes per session. Octopamine was used as a supplement for 4 weeks and it was also used in the form of intraperitoneal injection with a dose of 81 µmol/kg for five days per week in the CI, SI, and SEI. In this regard PCR-Real time was used to evaluate the expression of PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK-1) and Lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (Lamp2a) genes. Results: It was observed that there is no significant difference in PINK1 gene expression between CI, ETI, and SEI (p˃0.05), While, there was a significant difference between CI, ETI, and SEI than HC in PINK1 gene expression (p≤0.05). We found that LAMP2 gene expression significantly was higher in the HC than the other groups (p≤0.05). Also, LAMP2 gene expression in the SEI was significantly higher than HC (p=0.001). Conclusion: It can be said that combination of aerobic training and Octopamine supplement led to the mitophagy induction that was induced by the intoxication with heated oils through increasing the expression of LAMP2A gene and the induction of chaperones by the activation of chaperones which have been binding to LAMP2 receptor protein in the lynsosome.


1. Huang, C.-J., et al., Obesity-related oxidative stress: the impact of physical activity and diet manipulation. Sports medicine-open, 2015. 1(1): p. 1-12.

2. Joseph, N., et al., Fast food consumption pattern and its association with overweight among high school boys in Mangalore city of southern India. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 2015. 9(5): p. LC13.

3. Kim, T.H., et al., Fast food diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease exerts early protective effect against acetaminophen intoxication in mice. BMC gastroenterology, 2017. 17(1): p. 124.

4. Ekiz, E. and F. Oz, The effects of different frying oils on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in meatballs and the changes in fatty acid compositions of meatballs and frying oils. Journal of the science of food and agriculture, 2019. 99(4): p. 1509-1518.

5. Wang, L., et al., Acrolein, an environmental toxin, induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis via elevated intracellular calcium and free radicals. Cell biochemistry and biophysics, 2011. (1)61: p. 131-136.

6.Carvalho VH, Oliveira AHS, de Oliveira LF, et al. Exercise and β-alanine supplementation on carnosine-acrolein adduct in skeletal muscle. Redox Biol. 2018; 18:222–228. doi:10.1016/j.redox.2018.07.009.

7. Almasi J, Azizbeigi K, Mohammad Zade Salamat Kh, Naghsh Tabrizi B, Azarbaijani MA. The effect of taking resveratrol supplement during heart rehabilitation exercises on the lipid profile of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery: randomized clinical trial. Journal of Knowledge & Health 2018; 13(2):8-14.

8. Sun, Y., et al., Acrolein induced both pulmonary inflammation and the death of lung epithelial cells. Toxicology letters, 2014. 229(2): p. 384-392.

9.Thevis, M., et al., Analysis of octopamine in human doping control samples. Biomedical Chromatography, 2012. 26(5): p. 610-615.

10. de Oliveira, A., et al., Adrenergic metabolic and hemodynamic effects of octopamine in the liver. International journal of molecular sciences, 2013. 14(11): p. 21858-21872. 

11. Atashak S, Stannard SR, Azizbeigi K. Cardiovascular risk factors adaptation to concurrent training in overweight sedentary middle- aged men. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2016; 56(5):624-30

12. Azizbeigi K, Stannard S R, Atashak S. Green Tea Supplementation During Resistance Training Minimally Affects Systemic Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Indices in Obese Men, Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod.; 14(1):e61419. doi: 10.5812/jjnpp.61419.

13. Libardi CA, De Souza GV, Cavaglieri CR, Madruga VA, Chacon-Mikahil MP. Effect of resistance, endurance, and concurrent training on TNF-α, IL-6, and CRP. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012 Jan; 44(1):50-6. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318229d2e9

14. Alishahi A, Azizbeigi K , Mohammadzadeh Salamat K, Yektayar M. The Effect of Aerobic Training with Vitamin C Supplementation on Myeloperoxidase, Asymmetric Dimethyl Arginine and Blood Pressure in Middle-Age Hypertensive Overweight Men, J Clin Res Paramed Sci. Online ahead of Print ; 8(2):e86843. doi: 10.5812/jcrps.86843.

15. Wood-Kaczmar, A., et al., PINK1 is necessary for long term survival and mitochondrial  function in human dopaminergic neurons. PloS one, 2008. 3(6): p. e2455.

16. Wood-Kaczmar, A., et al., PINK1 is necessary for long term survival and mitochondrial function in human dopaminergic neurons. PloS one, 2008. 3(6): p. e2455.

17.Valente, E.M., et al., PINK1 mutations are associated with sporadic early‐onset parkinsonism. Annals of neurology, 2004. 56(3): p. 336-341.

18. Sarafian V, Jadot M, Foidart JM, Letesson JJ, Van den Brûle F, Castronovo V, Wattiaux R, Coninck SW (January 1998). "Expression of Lamp-1 and Lamp-2 and their interactions with galectin-3 in human tumor cells". International Journal of Cancer. 75 (1): 105–11. doi:10.1002/(sici)1097-0215(19980105);2-f. PMID 9426697.

19. Xin-Fang, L., et al., Effect of Repeatedly Heated Palm Olein on Blood Pressure—Regulating Enzymes Activity and Lipid Peroxidation in Rats. The Malaysian journal of medical sciences: MJMS, 2012. 19(1): p. 20.

20.Adraskela, K., et al., Physical exercise positively influences breast cancer evolution.         Clinical breast cancer, 2017. 17(6): p. 408-417.

21. Vives-Bauza, C. and S. Przedborski, Mitophagy: the latest problem for Parkinson's    disease. Trends in molecular medicine, 2011. 17(3): p. 158-165.

22.Yao, Z., et al., Cell metabolism affects selective vulnerability in PINK1-associated Parkinson's disease. J Cell Sci, 2011. 124(24): p. 4194-4202.

23. Burenjargal, M. and N. Totani, Cytotoxic compounds generated in heated oil and assimilation of oil in Wistar rats. Journal of Oleo Science, 2009. 58(1): p. 1-7.

24. Park, S.-Y. and Y.-S. Kwak, Impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in athletes. Journal of exercise rehabilitation, 2016. 12(2): p. 113.

25. Deas, E., et al., PINK1 deficiency in β-cells increases basal insulin secretion and improves glucose tolerance in mice. Open biology, 2014. 4(5): p. 140051.