The Simultaneous Effects of Aerobic Training and Octopamine on the Mitophagy of the Brown Adipose Tissue after the Induction of Intoxication by Deeply Heated Oil in Male Wistar Rats

Document Type: Review Article

Authors

1 PhD Student, Department of Physical Education, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Physical Education, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran.

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran.

Abstract

Introduction: Deep heated oils produce toxins that pose significant risk to the human health. The present study aims to investigate the simultaneous effects of aerobic training and octopamine consumption on the mitophagy of the brown adipose tissue after the induction of intoxication by deeply heated oil in male Wistar rats. Methods: This study was conducted on 40 male Wistar rats after four weeks of feeding with heated oil. The animals were randomly assigned to the groups of control-intoxication (CI; n=8), exercise training-intoxication (ETI; n=8), supplement-intoxication (SI; n=8), supplement-exercise-intoxication (SEI; n=8), and healthy control (HC; n=8).Exercise training was performed for four weeks at the intensity of 50-65% VO2max for 20 minutes per session. Octopamine was used as the supplement for four weeks. In addition, intraperitoneal injection was carried out with the dose of 81 µmol/kg five days per week in the CI, SI, and SEI groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to evaluate the expression of the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2A) genes. Results: No significant difference was observed in the PINK1 gene expression between the CI, ETI, and SEI groups (P˃0.05), while a significant difference was observed between the CI, ETI, and SEI groups with the HC in this regard (P≤0.05). The LAMP2 gene expression significantly was higher in the HC group compared to the other groups (P≤0.05). In addition, the LAMP2 gene expression in the SEI group was significantly higher than the HC group (P=0.001). Conclusion: According to the results, the combination of aerobic training and octopamine supplementation led to mitophagy induction through intoxication with heated oils by increasing the expression of the LAMP2A gene and induction of chaperones by the activation of the chaperones with binding to the LAMP2 receptor protein in the lysosome. 

Keywords


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