Effect of Different Cooking Methods on Nutritional Quality, Nutrients Retention, and Lipid Oxidation of Quail Meat

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran

2 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran

3 Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, Esfahan University of Medical Sciences, Esfahan, Iran

10.22038/jnfh.2020.50409.1279

Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the effects of different cooking methods (i.e., frying with oil, frying without oil, microwave cooking, steaming, and roasting) on the proximate composition, fatty acid profile, and lipid oxidation of quail meat. The retention values of nutrients were also determined in order to identify the best cooking method. Cooking resulted in moisture loss, and the highest reduction was reported for the steaming and microwave methods. The highest increase in protein content was observed in microwave cooking, steaming, and frying with oil; however, the highest amount of total lipid was noticed in the method of frying with oil. Considering the fatty acid profile, C18:1 n-9 increased in all methods; nevertheless, C18:2 n-6 only increased in the method of frying with oil. C18:3 n-3 also increased in frying with oil but decreased in microwave cooking and steaming. The fried samples absorbed the major fatty acids of cooking oil. The total amount of saturated fatty acids increased in steaming but decreased in other methods. The total amount of monounsaturated fatty acids increased in all cooking methods. The amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) increased in frying with oil; however, it decreased in other methods. The ratios of n-6/n-3 significantly reduced in frying with oil and roasting. The residual level of PUFAs was higher in the frying methods and roasting than those reported for other methods. Cooking methods increased lipid oxidation in the cooked samples, compared to that of the raw meat. Moreover, the highest level of lipid oxidation was reported in the frying with oil method. Based on the result of retention values, the frying without oil and roasting methods are considered the healthiest cooking methods.  

Keywords


1. Ribarski1 S, Genchev A. Effect of breed on meat quality in Japanese quails (coturnix coturnix japonica). Trakia J Sci. 2013; 2:181-8.
2. Boni I, Nurul H, Noryati I. Comparison of meat quality characteristics between young and spent quails. Int Food Res J. 2010; 17(3): 661-6.
3. Wilkanowska A, Kokoszynski D. Comparision of slaughter value in pharaoh quail of different ages. J Cent Eur Agric. 2011; 12(1):145-154
4. Genchev A, Mihaylova G, Ribarski S, Pavlov A, Kabakchiev M. Meat quality and composition in Japanese quails. Trakia J Sci. 2008; 6(4):72-82.
5. El-Dengawy RA, Nassar AM. Investigation on the nutritive value and microbiological quality of wild quail carcasses. Nahrung/Food. 2001; 45(1):50-54.
6. Ersoy B. Effects of cooking methods on the proximate, mineral and fatty acid composition of European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Int J Food Sci Technol. 2010; 46:522-527.
7. da Silva SM, Kuga EK, Filho JM. Efeito do processamento sobre a´ cidos graxos polinsaturados da fracao lipdica da sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis) e da tainha (Mugil cephalus). Revista de Farma´cia e Bioquı´mica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, 1993; 29, 41–46.
8. Domínguez, R., Borrajo, P. and Lorenzo, J.M. The effect of cooking methods on nutritional value of foal meat. J Food Compos Anal. 2015; 43:61-67.
9. British Department of Health. Nutritional Aspects of Cardiovascular Disease. Report on health and social subjects.HMSO, London, United Kingdom; 1994. No. 46.
10. Bakar J, Zakipour Rahimabadi E, Che Man YB. Lipid characteristics in cooked, chill-reheated fillets of Indo-Pacific king mackerel (Scomberomorous guttatus).Int J Food Sci Technol. 2008; 41:2144-2150.
11. Conchillo A, Ansorena D, Astiasaran I. The effect of cooking and storage on the fatty profile of chicken breast. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol. 2004; 106:301-306.
12. Hoffman LC, Tlhong TM. Proximate and fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of different cuts of guinea fowl meat as affected by cooking method.J Sci Food Agric. DOI 10.1002/jsfa.5682, 2012.
13. Sales J, Marais D, Kruger M. Fat Content, Caloric Value, Cholesterol Content, and Fatty Acid Composition of Raw and Cooked Ostrich Meat. J Food Compos Anal. 1996; 9:85-89.
14. Zhang L, Wang S. Effects of Cooking on Thermal-induced Changes of Qingyuan Partridge Chicken Breast. Food Sci Biotechnol. 2012; 21(6):1525-1531.
15. AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. 16th ed. AOAC International, Arlington; 1995.
16. IUPAC. Standards Methods for Analysis of Oils, Fats and Derivatives, 6th edition. Pergamon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom. 1979; 59-66.
17. Fallah AA, Saei-Dehkordi SS, Nematollahi A. Comparative assessment of proximate composition, physicochemical parameters, fatty acid profile and mineral content in farmed and wild rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Int J Food Sci Technol. 2011; 46:767-773.
18. Fallah AA, Nematollahi A, Saei-Dehkordi SS. Proximate composition and fatty acid profile of edible tissues of Capoeta damascina (Valenciennes, 1842) reared in freshwater and brackish water. J Food Compos Anal. 2013; 32:150-154.
19. Murphy EW, Criner PE, Gray BC. Comparisons of methods for calculating retentions of nutrients in cooked foods. J Agric Food Chem. 1975; 23(6): 1153-1157.
20. Kwon JH, Kwon Y, Nam KC, Lee EJ, Ahn DU. Effect of electron-beam irradiation before and after cooking on the chemical properties of beef, pork, and chicken. Meat Sci. 2008; 80: 903–909.
21. Nurhan U. Change in proximate, amino acid and fatty acid contents in muscle tissue of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after cooking. Int J Food Sci Technol. 2007; 42(9):1087-93.
22. Delfieh P, Rezaei M, Hosseini H, Vali Hosseini S, Zohrehbakhsh E. Effects of cooking methods on proximate composition and fatty acids profile of Indian white prawn (Fenneropenaeus indicus). J Aquat Food Prod Technol. 2013; 22(4):353-60.
23. Gladyshev MI, Sushchik NN, Gubaneko GA, Demirchieva SM, Kalachova GS. Effect of way of cooking on content of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in muscle tissue of humpback salmon (Onchorhynchus gorbuscha). Food Chem. 2006; 96:446-451.
24. Kumar S, Aalbersberg B. Nutrient retention in foods after earth-oven cooking compared to other forms of domestic cooking, proximates, carbohydrates and dietary fibre. J Food Compost Anal. 2006; 19:302-310.
25. Weber J, Bochi VC, Ribeiro CP, Victorio AM, Emanuelli T. Effect of different cooking methods on the oxidation, proximate and fatty acid composition of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) fillets. Food Chem. 2008; 106:140-146.
26. Gokoglu N, Yerlikaya P, Cengiz E. Effects of cooking methods on the proximate composition and mineral contents of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Food Chem. 2004; 84:19-22.
27. Koubaa A, Abdelmouleh A, Bouain A, Boudhrioua MN. Effect of Cooking Methods on Nutritional Profile of Common Pandora (Pagellus erythrinus) from the Mediterranean Sea. J Food Process Preserv. 2013; 38(4):1682-1689.
28. Turkkan AU, Cakli S, Klinic B. Effects of cooking methods on the proximate composition and fatty acid composition of seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus, 1758). Food Bioprod Process. 2008; 86:163-166.
29. Castrillon AM, Navarro P, Alvarez-Pontes E. Changes in chemical composition and nutritional quality of fried sardine (Clupea pilchardus) produced by frozen storage and microwave reheating. J Sci Food Agric. 1997; 75:125-132.
30. Sanches-Muniz FJ, Viejo JM, Medina R. Deep-frying of sardines in different culinary fats. Changes in the fatty acids composition of sardines and frying fats. J Agric Food Chem. 1992; 40:2252-2256.
31. Zakipour Rahimabadi E, Dad S. Effects of frying by different frying oils on fatty acid profile of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Iran J Fish Sci. 2012; 11:704-712.
32. Gall K.L., Otwell W.S., Koburger J.A., Appledorf H. Effects of Four Cooking Methods on the Proximate, Mineral and Fatty Acid Composition of Fish Fillets. J Food Sci. 1983; 48:1068-1074.
33. Mai J, Kinsella J E. Changes in the lipid components of minced carp (Cyprinus carpio) following cooking. J Sci Food Agric. 1981; 32:293-299.
34. Ono K, Berry BW, Parozczay E. Contents and retention of nutrients in extra lean, lean and regular ground beef. J Food Sci. 1985; 50:701-706.
35. Scheeder MRL, Casutt MM, Roulin M, Escher V, Dufey PA, Kreuzer M.  Fatty acid composition, cooking loss and texture of beef patties from meat of bulls fed different fats. Meat Sci. 2001; 58:321-328.
36. Lee WT, Dawson LE. Chicken lipid changes during cooking in fresh and reused cooking oil. J Food Sci. 1973; 38:1232-1237.
37. Alfaia CPM, Alves SP, Lopes AF, Fernandes MFE, Costa ASH, Fontes CMGA, et al. Effect of cooking methods on fatty acids, conjugated isomers of linoleic acid and nutritional quality of beef intramuscular fat. Meat Sci. 2010; 84:769-777.
 
38. Al-Saghir S, Thurner K, Wagner KH, Frisch G, Luf W, Razzazi-Fazeli E, et al. Effects of different cooking procedures on lipid quality and cholesterol oxidation of farmed salmon fish (Salmo salar). J Agric Food Chem. 2010; 52:5290-5296.
 39. Zervou A, Sinanoglou VJ, Papadas G, Thomaidis NS. Effect of pan-frying on PUFA and individual lipid content in Spicara smaris. Acta Alimentaria. 2012; 41(1):33-44.
40. Agren JJ, Hanninen O. Effects of cooking on the fatty acids of three freshwater fish species. Food Chem. 1993; 46:377-382.
41. Maranesi M, Bochicchio D, Montellato L, Zaghini A, Pagliuca G, Badiani A. Effect of microwave cooking or broiling on selected nutrient contents, fatty acid patterns and true retention values in separable lean from lamb ribloins, with emphasis on conjugated linoleic acid. Food Chem. 2005; 90:207-218.
42. Yoshida H, Hirakawa Y, Tomiyama Y, Nagamizu T, Mizushina Y. Fatty acid distributions of triacylglycerols and phospholipids in peanut seeds (Arachis hypogaea L.) following microwave treatment. J Food Compos Anal. 2005; 18:3-14.
43. Cross GA, Fung DYC. The effect of microwaves on nutrient value of foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1982; 16:355-381.
44. Lang K. Influence of cooking on foodstuffs. World rev nutr diet.1970; 12:266-317.
 45. Candela M, Astiasaran I, Bello J. Deep-Fat frying modifies high-fat fish lipid fraction.J Agric Food Chem. 1998; 46(7):2793-2796.
46. Ansorena D, Guembe A, Mendizábal T, Astiasarán I. Effect of fish and oil nature on frying process and nutritional product quality. J Food Sci. 2010; 75(2): H62-H67.