The Effect of Ramadan Fasting and Physical Activity on Homocysteine and Fibrinogen Concentrations In Overweight Women

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of Sport Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of General Courses, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran

3 Biochemistry and Nutrition Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

Introduction: Increased levels of certain markers like fibrinogen and Homocysteine are independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Considering the numerous favorable effects of healthful nutrition and physical activity on reducing the risk of atherosclerosis, in this study we intend to take into account fasting and physical activity during the month of Ramadan and their impacts on Homocysteine and fibrinogen concentrations in overweight women.
Materials and Methods: In this experiment, 22 overweight and obese women with a body mass index (BMI) of greater than 25 kg/m2 aging from 20 to 45 years were enrolled into two groups by means of targeted-sampling method. One group involved fasting accompanied with regular physical activity (12 subjects) and the other group involved only fasting (10 subjects). The protocol for the physical activity group consisted of three 60-minute sessions of aerobic exercise per week with a 50%- 65% heart rate reserved. Towards the end of Ramadan, the anthropometric and blood levels of Homocysteine and fibrinogen were closely measured. Data were analyzed using repeated measures and the significance level of P≤0 /05 was considered. Results: A month of fasting along with regular physical activity did not prove to have any noticeable effects on the level of fibrinogen while a significant increase in the Homocysteine levels was discovered (P <0/05). Comparing the two protocols lead us to the conclusion that one month of fasting with or without regular physical activity did not seem to make a noteworthy difference on the levels of fibrinogen and Homocysteine. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that fasting with or without regular exercise could not significantly decrease the body fat percentage. Furthermore, it seems that unhealthy and inadequate nutrition during Ramadan as well as insufficient intensity and duration of exercise are the causes of fibrinogen and Homocysteine levels to grow dramatically.

Keywords


  1. Gelber RP, Gaziano JM, Orav EJ, Manson JE, Buring JE, Kurth T. Measures of Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk among Men and Women. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008;52(8):605-15.
  2. American Heart Association. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2005 Update. Dallas, Tex: American Heart Association; 2004.
  3. Meyer AA, Kundt G, Lenschow U, Schuff-Werner P, Kienast W. Improvement of Early Vascular Changes and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children after a Six-month Exercise Program. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;48(9):1865-1870.
  4. Blake GJ, Ridker PM. Novel clinical markers of vascular wall inflammation. Circ Res 2001; 89: 763-71.
  5. Blake GJ, Ridker PM. Inflammatory bio-marker and cardiovascular risk prediction: J Intern Med 2002; 252:283-94.
  6. Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, editors. Libby:Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2008.
  7. Nazem F, Heidarianpour A, Kozehchian M. Effects of prolonged swimming and football training programs on C-reactive protein(CRP), homocysteine and fibrinogen concentrations in the serum of young boys. Physiology and Pharmacology 2010; 14(2): 191-198.
  8. Smith GD Harbord R, Milton J. Does elevated plasma fibrinogen increase the risk of coronary heart disease of genetic association studies. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2005; 25: 2228-2233.
  9. Ueland PM, Refsum H, Beresford SA and Vollset SE. The controversy over homocysteine and cardiovascular risk. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72:324-332.
  10. Ford ES, Smith SJ, Stroup DF, et al. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: a systemic review of the evidence with special emphasis on case-control studies and nested case-control studies. Int J Epidemiol 2002; 31:59-70
  11. Manor MM, Joubert LM. Exercise, Nutrition, and homocysteine. International Journal Of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 2006; 16: 341-361.
  12. Wald DS, Law M, Morris JK. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: evidence on causality from a meta-analysis. BMJ 2002; 325: 1202.
  13. Cobbaert C, Arentsen JC, Mulder P, Hoogerbrugge N, Lindemans J. Significance of various parameters derived from biological variability of lipoprotein(a), homocysteine, cysteine and total antioxidant status. Clin Chem. 1997; 43(10): 1958-1964.
  14. Celermajer DS, Sorensen K, Ryalls M, Robinson J, Thomas O, Leonard JV et al. Impaired endothelial function occurs in the systemic arteries of children with homozygous homocystinuria but not in their heterozygous parents. J Am Coll Cardiol.1993; 22(3): 854-858.
  15. Verhaar MC, Wever RM, Kastelein JJ, van Dam T, Koomans HA, Rabelink TJ. 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the active form of folic acid, restores endothelial function in familial hypercholesterolemia. Circulation. 1998; 97(3): 237-241.
  16. Boushy CJ, Beresford SA, Omenn GS, Motulsky AG. A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. Probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes. J Am Med Assoc 1995; 274: 1049-1057.
  17. Homocysteine Studeis Collaboration. Heomocysteine and risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke. A meta analysis. JAMA 288 (2002) 2015-2022.
  18. Best LG, North K E, Li  X, Palmieri V, Umans J G, Mac Cluer J, et al. Linkage study of fibrinogen levels: the Strong Heart Family StudyBMC Medical Genetics. BMC Medical Genetics 2008; Aug(9): 77-89.
  19. Cheuk  B L, Cheung G, Lau S, Cheng S. Plasma Fibrinogen Level: an Independent Risk Factor for Long-term Survival in  Chinese Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease. World J Surg 2005; Sep(29): 1263–1267.
  20. Reinhart WH. Fibrinogen--marker or mediator of vascular disease? Vasc Med 2003; 8(3): 211-216.
  21. Nicklas BJ, Beavers KM.  Exercise, Weight Loss, and Effects on Inflammation .Curr Cardio Risk Rep 2010 Apr; 4:284–2.
  22. Jahangard T, Torkaman G, Ghoosheh B, Hedayatic Mehdi , Dibaj A .The effect of short-term aerobic training on coagulation and fibrinolyti factors in sedentary healthy postmenopausal women. Maturitas 2009; 64: 223–227.
  23. Furukawa1 F, Kazuma K, Kojima M, Kusukawa R. Effects of an Off-Site Walking Program on Fibrinogen and Exercise Energy Expenditure in Women .Asian Nursing Research 2008 Mar;2 :35-45.
  24. Herman M., Wilkinson J, Schorr H. Comparison of the influence of volume orientated and high-intensity interval training on serum heomocysteine and its cofactors in young, healthy swimmers. Clin Ches Lab Med 2003; 41: 1525-1531.
  25. Taghian F, Esfarjani F. Effects of Aerobic Training on Body Composition and Serum Homocysteine in Elderly Women. Armaghane danesh 2011. 3(16):221-232.
  26. Adlouni A, Ghalim N, Saile R, Had N, Parra HJ, Benslimance A. Beneficial effect on serum apo AI, apo B and Lp AI levels of Ramadan fasting. Clinica Chimica Acta 1998. 271:179-189 .
  27. Lotfi S, Madani M, Abassi A, Tazi A, Boumahmaza M,Talbi M. CNS activation, reaction time, blood pressure and heart rate variation during ramadan intermittent fasting and exercise. World Journal of Sport Sciences 2010. 3(1): 37-43.
  28. AL-Hourani H.M, Atoum M.F, Akel S.C, Hijjawi N.D, Awawdeh S.Effects of ramadan fasting on some haematological and biochemical parameters. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences 2009. 2(3):103-108
  29. Kamal Mohmoud Saleh Mansi. Study the Effects of Ramadan Fasting on the Serum Glucose and Lipid Profile among Healthy Jordanian Students. American Journal of Applied Sciences 2007; 4 (8): 565-569
  30. Haghdoost, A.A and PoorRanjbar, M. The interaction between physical activity and fasting on the serum lipid profile during Ramadan. Singapore Med J 2009; 50(9):897-906.
  31. Tayebi, Hanachi, Ghanbari Niaki, Nazar Ali, Ghorbanalizadeh. Ramadan Fasting and Weight-Lifting Training on Vascular Volumes and Hematological Profiles in Young Male Weight-Lifters. Global Journal of Health Science 2010; 2(1): 161-166.
  32. Ramadan J. Does Fasting during Ramadan Alter Body Composition, Blood Constituents and Physical Performance? Med Principles Pract 2002; 11(suppl 2):41-46.
  33. Yousef Boobes, Bassam Bernieh, M. Raafat Al Hakim. Fasting Ramadan in Kidney Transplant Patients is Safe. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2009; 20(2):198-200.
  34. Maislos M, Khamaysi N, Assali A, Abu-Rabiah Y, Zvili I, Shany S. Marked increase in plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol after prolonged fasting during Ramadan. Am J Clin Nutr 1993; 57: 640 –642.
  35. Aksungar FB, Eren A, Ure S, Teskin O, Ates G. Effects of Intermittent Fasting on Serum Lipid Levels, Coagulation Status and Plasma Homocysteine Levels. Ann Nutr Metab 2005; 49:77–82.
  36. Saleh SA, El-Kemery TA, Farrag KA, Badawy MR, Sarkis NN, Soliman FS, Mangoud H. Ramadan fasting: relation to atherogenic risk among obese Muslims. J Egypt Public Health Assoc 2004; 79(5-6):461-83.
  37. Sarraf-Zadegan N, Atashi M, Naderi G, Baghai A, Asgary S, Fatehifar M, et al. The effect of fasting in Ramadan on the values and interrelations between biochemical, coagulation and hematological factors. Annals of Saudi Medicine 2000; 20:371-381.
  38. ahdat Shariatpanahi M, Vahdat Shariatpanahi Z, Shahbazi SH, Moshtagi M. Effect of fasting with two meals on BMI and inflammatory markers of metabolic syndrome. Pakistan J Biological Sciences 2012; 15(5): 255-258
  39. Afifi ZE. Daily practices, study performance and health during the Ramadan fast. Journal of the Royal Society of Health 1997. 117: 231-235.
  40. Zafari  A, Nikbakht H, Amirtash A.M, Gharooni M. Correlation of VO2max with Serum Concentrations of Fibrinogen and Homocysteine. European Journal of Experimental Biology  2012, 2 (5):1593-1597.
  41. Monica  R. Correlation Of Hcy Concentration With Plasma Fib And Physical Activity In Males With Coronary Artery Disease. Human Nutrition, Foods And Exercise, Virginia Polytechnic Institute And State University 1997. Blacksburg, Virginia.
  42. Chaouachi A, Coutts AJ, Wong D, Roky R, Mbazaa A, Amri M, et al. Haematological, inflammatory, and immunological responses in elite judo athletes maintaining high training loads during Ramadan. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2009; 34: 907–915.
  43. Nematy M, Alinezhad-Namaghi M, mahdavi Rashed M, Mozhdehifard M, Sajjadi S, Akhlaghi S, et al. Effects of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular risk factors: a prospective observational study. Nutrition Journal 2012; 11:69-80.
  44. Aksungar FB, Topkaya AE, Akyildiz M.Interleukin-6, C-reactive protein and biochemical parameters during prolonged intermittent fasting.Ann Nutr Metab 2007; 51(1):88-95.
  45. Fakhr Zadeh H, Ghotbi S, Heshmat R, Ebrahim R, Nory M, Shafaee A, et al. Investigation of effective factors on 25-64 urban population inhabited in population research site of Tehran medic science. Iranian J Diabet Lipid Disorders 2005; 5(2): 163-174.
  46. Bailey DM, Davies B, Baker J. Training in hypoxia: modulation of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32: 1058-66.