The Effects of Ramadan Fasting on the Level of Sex Hormones in Pre-menarche Girls in Mashhad, Iran

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Nutrition and Biochemistry Research Center and Department of Nutrition, Mashhad Medical School, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Iran.

2 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology. International College, University of Chinese Academy of Science (IC-UCAS). Beijing, China

3 Emam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

4 Addiction Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

5 Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

6 Department of Statistic, School of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

7 Students Research Committee, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Abstract

The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Ramadan fasting on the level of sex hormones in girls between 9-13 years before age at menarche. This study was conducted on a sample of 58 subjects (age range: 9-13 years), who were divided into two groups of fasting (N=31) and non-fasting (N=27). The levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone and estradiol were measured in all the subjects before and after Ramadan. Measurements were carried out three days before the start of Ramadan, and one day afterwards. In this study, FSH levels significantly increased in the non-fasting group (P=0.01), and the level of Dehydroepiandrostenedione (DHEA) had a significant decrease during the time of study in both groups (P=0.001, P=0.006). In addition, serum levels of LH significantly increased in the non-fasting group after Ramadan (P=0.006), and estradiol significantly increased in both groups (P=0.008, P=0.004). Given the similar changes in the levels of DHEA, progesterone and estradiol in both study groups, it could be concluded that fasting has no effects on these parameters, and the changes in LH and FSH levels could be due to other contributing factors. 

Keywords


  1. Mazidi M, Rezaie P, Karimi E, Nematy M. Effects of Ramadan fasting on lipid profile: A narrative review. Journal of Fasting and Health. 2014;2(2):57-61.
  2. Mazidi M, Rezaie P, Nematy M. The effects of Ramadan fasting on growth parameters: A narrative review. Journal of Fasting and Health. 2014;2(1):41-5.
  3. Bahrayni S, Vakili R, Nematy M, Norouzy A, Hashemy SI, Ebrahimi M, et al. The effect of Ramadan fasting on thyroid hormones in 9‐13 years old pre‐menarche girls. Journal of Fasting and Health. 2013;1(2):46-52.
  4. Bogdan A, Bouchareb B, Touitou Y. Ramadan fasting alters endocrine and neuroendocrine circadian patterns. Meal–time as a synchronizer in humans? Life Sciences. 2001;68(14):1607-15.
  5. Moradi M. The effect of Ramadan fasting on fetal growth and Doppler indices of pregnancy. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences : The Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. 2011;16(2):165-9.
  6. Al-Hourani HM, Atoum MF. Body composition, nutrient intake and physical activity patterns in young women during Ramadan. Singapore medical journal. 2007;48(10):906-10. Epub 2007/10/03.
  7. Nematy M, Alinezhad-Namaghi M, Rashed MM, Mozhdehifard M, Sajjadi SS, Akhlaghi S, et al. Effects of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular risk factors: a prospective observational study. Nutrition journal. 2012;11:69. Epub 2012/09/12.
  8. Chaouachi A, Chamari K, Roky R, Wong P, Mbazaa A, Bartagi Z, et al. Lipid profiles of judo athletes during Ramadan. International journal of sports medicine. 2008;29(4):282-8. Epub 2007/09/21.
  9. Memari AH, Kordi R, Panahi N, Nikookar LR, Abdollahi M, Akbarnejad A. Effect of ramadan fasting on body composition and physical performance in female athletes. Asian journal of sports medicine. 2011;2(3):161-6. Epub 2012/03/01.
  10. Ziaee V, Razaei M, Ahmadinejad Z, Shaikh H, Yousefi R, Yarmohammadi L, et al. The changes of metabolic profile and weight during Ramadan fasting. Singapore medical journal. 2006;47(5):409-14. Epub 2006/04/29.
  11. Guerrero-Morilla R, Ramirez-Rodrigo J, Ruiz-Villaverde G, Sanchez-Caravaca MA, Perez-Moreno BA, Villaverde-Gutierrez C. [Endocrine-metabolic adjustments during Ramadan fasting in young athletes]. Archivos latinoamericanos de nutricion. 2013;63(1):14-20. Epub 2013/11/01. Ajustes endocrino-metabolicos durante el ayuno de Ramadan en jovenes deportistas.
  12. Mesbahzadeh B, Ghiravani Z, Mehrjoofard H. Effect of Ramadan fasting on secretion of sex hormones in healthy single males. Eastern Mediterranean health journal = La revue de sante de la Mediterranee orientale = al-Majallah al-sihhiyah li-sharq al-mutawassit. 2005;11(5-6):1120-3. Epub 2006/06/10.
  13. Yarahmadi S, Larijani B, Bastanhagh MH, Pajouhi M, Baradar Jalili R, Zahedi F, et al. Metabolic and clinical effects of Ramadan fasting in patients with type II diabetes. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2003;13(6):329-32.
  14. Fauci A, Braunwald E, Kasper D, Hauser S, Longo D, Jameson J, et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 17th Edition: Mcgraw-hill; 2008.
  15. Kliegman RM, Stanton B, Geme JS, Schor NF, Behrman RE. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics: Elsevier Science Health Science; 2011.
  16. Graham GR. TEXTBOOK OF HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY. British Medical Journal. 1962;1(5277):531-2.
  17. Kenneth S. Saladin, University GCaS. Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function. 6th ed: McGraw-Hill; 2012.
  18. Hall JE. Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2010.
  19. Viner R. Puberty, the Brain and Mental Health in Adolescence. In: Bourguignon J-P, Carel J-C, Christen Y, editors. Brain Crosstalk in Puberty and Adolescence: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 57-73.
  20. Palmert MR, Boepple PA. Variation in the timing of puberty: clinical spectrum and genetic investigation. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 2001;86(6):2364-8. Epub 2001/06/09.
  21. Villanueva C, de Roux N. [Biological mechanisms and genes involved in puberty]. La Revue du praticien. 2008;58(12):1305-9. Epub 2008/08/22. Mecanismes biologiques et genes impliques dans le developpement de la puberte.
  22. Al-Munajjid SMS. 70 Matters Related to Fasting: Islam House; 2014.
  23. Mohsen Nematy AN, Peyman Rezaie, Mohsen Mazidi. Fasting in Health and Diseases: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences; 2012.
  24. Azizi F. Islamic fasting and health. Annals of nutrition & metabolism. 2010;56(4):273-82. Epub 2010/04/29.
  25. Javadi MA, Assadi M, Einollahi B, Rabei HM, Afarid M, Assadi M. The effects of Ramadan fasting on the health and function of the eye. J Res Med Sci. 2014;19(8):786-91. Epub 2014/11/26.
  26. Rouhani MH, Azadbakht L. Is Ramadan fasting related to health outcomes? A review on the related evidence. J Res Med Sci. 2014;19(10):987-92. Epub 2014/12/30.
  27. Rogol AD. Sex steroids, growth hormone, leptin and the pubertal growth spurt. Endocrine development. 2010;17:77-85. Epub 2009/12/04.
  28. Rogol AD, Roemmich JN, Clark PA. Growth at puberty. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. 2002;31(6 Suppl):192-200. Epub 2002/12/10.
  29. Styne DM. The regulation of pubertal growth. Hormone research. 2003;60(Suppl 1):22-6. Epub 2003/09/05.
  30. GOLDZIEHER MA. Growth and Sex Hormones. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 1941;1(11):924-7.
  31. Klibanski A, Beitins IZ, Badger T, Little R, McArthur JW. Reproductive function during fasting in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1981;53(2):258-63. Epub 1981/08/01.
  32. Bogdan A, Bouchareb B, Touitou Y. Ramadan fasting alters endocrine and neuroendocrine circadian patterns. Meal-time as a synchronizer in humans? Life Sci. 2001;68(14):1607-15. Epub 2001/03/27.
  33. Cameron JL, Weltzin TE, McConaha C, Helmreich DL, Kaye WH. Slowing of pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in men after forty-eight hours of fasting. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 1991;73(1):35-41. Epub 1991/07/01.
  34. Shahabi S, Esmaeilzadeh S, Amiri MG, Faramarzi M, Firouzjahee AR, Esmaeili T. Does Islamic Fasting Affect Gonadotropin around Female Ovulation? International Journal of Fertility and Sterility. 2010;4(3):94-7.
  35. Holly JMP, Smith CP, Dunger DB, Howell RJS, Chard T, Perry LA, et al. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PUBERTAL FALL INSEX HORMONE BINDING GLOBULIN AND INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR BINDING PROTEIN-I. A SYNCHRONIZED APPROACH TO PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT? Clinical Endocrinology. 1989;31(3):277-84.
  36. Nestler JE. Sex hormone-binding globulin: a marker for hyperinsulinemia and/or insulin resistance? The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 1993;76(2):273-4.
  37. Preziosi P, Barrett-Connor E, Papoz L, Roger M, Saint-Paul M, Nahoul K, et al. Interrelation between plasma sex hormone-binding globulin and plasma insulin in healthy adult women: the telecom study. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 1993;76(2):283-7.
  38. Guler HP, Zapf J, Schmid C, Froesch ER. Insulin-like growth factors I and II in healthy man. Estimations of half-lives and production rates. Acta endocrinologica. 1989;121(6):753-8. Epub 1989/12/01.
  39. Mortola JF, Laughlin GA, Yen SS. A circadian rhythm of serum follicle-stimulating hormone in women. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 1992;75(3):861-4.
  40. TOUITOU Y, FÈVRE M, LAGOGUEY M, CARAYON A, BOGDAN A, REINBERG A, et al. AGE- AND MENTAL HEALTH-RELATED CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS OF PLASMA LEVELS OF MELATONIN, PROLACTIN, LUTEINIZING HORMONE AND FOLLICLE-STIMULATING HORMONE IN MAN. Journal of Endocrinology. 1981;91(3):467-75.
  41. Mong JA, Baker FC, Mahoney MM, Paul KN, Schwartz MD, Semba K, et al. Sleep, Rhythms, and the Endocrine Brain: Influence of Sex and Gonadal Hormones. The Journal of Neuroscience. 2011;31(45):16107-16.
  42. Netzer N, Eliasson A, Strohl K. Women with Sleep Apnea Have Lower Levels of Sex Hormones. Sleep Breath. 2003;7(1):25-9.