The Effects of Fasting on the Level of Happiness in the General Population of Kermanshah, Iran

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Farabi Hospital, Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran

2 Psychology Department, Payamnoor University, Kermanshah, Iran

3 Medical Physics research center, Mashhad University of medical sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

Introduction: Fasting in the month of Ramadan has several positive effects on the emotional and mental state and improves happiness in the community. This study aimed to investigate the effects of fasting on the level of happiness in the general population. Methods: In this study, we used pretest-posttest analysis to evaluate the hypothesis, and the study population consisted of the people of Kermanshah, Iran. In total, 110 individuals were selected randomly, and the evaluation of happiness was performed using MUNSH happiness survey including four scales of positive appreciation (PA), positive experience (PE), negative appreciation (NA) and negative experience (NE). Data analysis was performed using T-test in SPSS V.18. Results: In this study, a significant difference was observed between the level of happiness before and after the month of Ramadan. Moreover, there was a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test in terms of NA (P=0.032, T=2.16) and NE (P=0.001, T=3.302). However, no significant difference was observed in PA and PE before and after Ramadan in the study population. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, fasting could positively affect the level of happiness in a community. Therefore, further attention needs to be drawn to the religious beliefs of people and their effects on the mental health of a society.

Keywords


  1. Navabakhsh M, Pouryousefi H. The effect of religion and religious beliefs on mental health. Religious research 2006:14.
  2. How CB. Ming, KE. Chin, CY. Does religious affiliation influence glycaemic control in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus? Mental Health in Family Medicine 2011;8:21–8.
  3. Huang CL, Shang C, Shieh M, Lin H, Su JC. The interactions between religion, religiosity, religious delusion/hallucination, and treatment-seeking behavior among schizophrenic patients in Taiwan. Psychiatry Research 187 (2011) 347–353.
  4. Sadeghi M, Mazaheri MA. The effect of fasting on mental health. Psychology journal 2005:35:3.
  5. Zare BahramAbadi M, Asgharnezhad AA, Bahari F, Chami M. The effect of fasting in Quran on Artificial intelligence and participant’s happiness. Quran and Medicine:2011(3):82-88.
  6. Rahmani MR, Zarei M. The effect of Ramadan fasting on increasing Delayed hypersensitivity response to PPD. Journal of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences: 2003-10(1).
  7. Asgari S, Aghaie A, Naderi GA, Azali Sh. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation in fasting and its protective role in the cardiovascular system. Journal of Ghazvin University of Medical Sciences. 2005-34.
  8. Sharzad MK, Larijani B, Yarahmadi M, Amini MR, Baradarjalili R, Aghakhani Sh, Khalilifadr AR. Effects of Ramadan fasting on thyroid function in young adults. Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences: 2003-5(2):121-125.
  9. Pirsaheb S, Pasdar Y, Navabi SJ, Rezaei M, Darbandi M, Niazi P. Fasting Consequences during Ramadan on Lipid Profile and Dietary Patterns. Asia Oceania J Nucl Med Biol. 2013; 1(2):6‐12.
  10. pourgoudarzi Sh, Soltani Zarandi A. Fasting in Ramadan and mental health. Thoughts and behavior:2002:8(2):26-32.
  11. Alibabaie A, Ghasemi M, Tavakoli H, Yousefi A. Effect of Ramadan fasting on some biochemical parameters. . Journal of North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences: 2008:1:21-26.
  12. Fararjeh, M A.  Bustanji, Y K. Mohammad, M K. Saleme, M L. Intermittent fasting during Ramadan attenuates proinflammatory cytokines and immune cells in healthy subjects. Nutrition research 3 2 ( 2012 ) 947 – 955.
  13. Ghaderi D. Relationship between religious orientation and happiness elderly. Journal of Aging: 2010:5(18).
  14. Amirpour B. Relationship between critical thinking it`s dimensions with happiness social self-esteem of students. Journal of Learning Strategies: 2012:5(3):143-147.
  15. Beyrami M, Mohammadpour V, Gholamzadeh M, Bahmani E. Between happiness and enthusiasm for communicating the attachment styles of students. Journal of Behavioral Sciences: 2012:6(2);105-110.
  16. Alipour A, Nouri N. Evaluate of reliability and validity of the Depression-Happiness on Justice staff in Isfahan. Journal of Fundamentals of Mental Health: 2006:8(31):87-96.
  17. Khoshniat Nikoo M, Shadman Zh, Larijani B. Mental health and sleep-wake pattern. Biomedical Journal of Persian Gulf South Medical Center. Bushehr University of Medical Sciences: 2012:15(2):137-150.
  18. Beyrami M, Hashemi T, Alaie M, Abdollahi V. Religious Demographic factors with emphasis on the Islam and operation of family in predicting students happiness of Tabriz Medical Sciences. Journal of Behavioral Sciences: 2011:9(1):33-43.
  19. Mousavi SA, Rezaei M, Amiri Baghni S, Seifi M. Effect of Fasting on Mental Health in the General Population of Kermanshah, Iran. J Fasting Health. 2014; 2(2):65-70.
  20. Hosseinkhanzadeh AA, Niyazi E, Investigate relationships between Religious orientation with public health and marital satisfaction among married students of University of Tehran. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 15 (2011) 505–509.
  21. Javanbakht M, Ziaie SA, Homam M, Rahnama A. The effect of Ramadan fasting on student self-esteem and mental health. Journal of Fundamentals of Mental Health: 2009:11(4):266-73.
  22. Rajabi M, Saremi AA, Beyzaie MH. The relationship between religious coping patterns of mental health and happiness. Developmental Psychology (Psychologist of Iran): 2012:8(32):363-371.
  23. Manzari Tavakoli A, Iraqipour N. Investigation of relationship between religiosity and happiness on female students of Islamic Azad University, Kerman 1389-1388, educational psychology (Psychology and Educational Sciences): 2010:6(19): 19-45.
  24. Ghahremani M, Delshad A, Tavakolizadeh J. The effect of fasting on mental health. Journal of Gonabad university of Medical Sciences: 2000:6(1).
  25. Fallah MH, Nikfarjam MR. Etekaf in the religious status and its effect on increasing happiness (A case study of female students in Yazd. Research of theological faith (Islamic Sciences):2009:4(16):113-135.
  26. Kazemi M, Karimi S, Ansari A, Negahban T, Hosseini SH, Vazirinezhad R. The effect of fasting on mental health and depression of Sirjan Azad University of Medical Sciences students in 1383. Journal of Sirjan Azad University of Medical Sciences: 2006:5(2):117-122.
  27. Borna MR, Savari K. Simple and multiple correlations between religious attitudes, mental health, life satisfaction and self-esteem with happiness on students. social psychology (New findings in psychology): 2008:2(8):76-86.
  28. Bradshaw,M. Ellison,C G. Financial hardship and psychological distress: Exploring the buffering effects of religion.Social Science & Medicine. July 2010; 196–204.