Effect of Ramadan Fasting and Triangular Exercise Progressive on the Vigilance, Mood and Blood Glucose in Trained Athletes

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Superior Normal School (ENS), Hassan II University, Casablanca, Morocco.

2 Department of Biology. Laboratory of Ecology and Environment (LEE). Faculty of Sciences, Hassan II University, Casablanca, Morocco.

3 Research and Assessment Unit in Physical Activity and Sport (CREAPS), Superior Normal School (ENS), Hassan II University, Casablanca, Morocco.

4 The Hassan II Foundation for Scientific and Medical Research on Ramadan (FRSMR), Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hassan II University, Casablanca, Morocco.

5 Analytical chemistry laboratory and physical chemistry of materials, Hassan II University, Casablanca, Morocco.

Abstract

Introduction: This study has for objective the assessment of the vigilance, mood states variations and the blood glucose levels, during a triangular effort progressive in trained athletes during Ramadan fasting (RF). Methods: Ten trained male athletes aged 21.8 ± 1.1 years are evaluated before (B.RF), during (1st, 2nd and 3th week) and after Ramadan fasting, in the blood-glucose, vigilance, and mood states at rest and after (A. Ex. ) a triangular exercise test (TUB II).Results: Comparing to the reference period (B.RF), the RF induces a decrease in the maximal aerobic power (TUB II) approximately 2-Cleanup Messy Code 5% and a hypoglycaemia. The objective vigilance is doubly influenced by the RF (F= 14.58, p<0.002) and the exercise (F = 13.04, p<0.02), and decreasing significantly during the 1st and 2nd week of RF. However the subjective vigilance and moods states are not varied neither by the RF nor by the exercise. Conclusion: The results should guide the work of physical education teachers and coaches to a programming by integrating more of periods of complete recovery, and avoiding risky tasks requiring sustained attention.

Keywords


  1. Krifi M, Ben Salem M, Ben Rayana MC, Alsuemi C, Ben Farhat N, Triki S, et al. Ramadan, activité physique et variations biologiques. J Med Nutr. 1989; 25(4):223-9.
  2. Judelson DA, Maresh CM, Anderson JM, Armstrong LE, Casa DJ, Kraemer WJ, et al. Hydration and muscular performance: does fluid balance affect strength, power and high-intensity endurance? Sports Med. 2007; 37(10):907–21.
  3. Sawka MN, Noakes TD. Does dehydration impair exercise performance? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007; 39(8):1209–17.
  4. Faye J, Fall A, Badji L, Cisse F, Stephan H, Tine P. Effects of Ramadan fast on weight, performance, and glycemia during training for resistance. Dakar Med. 2005; 50(3):146–51.
  5. Haghdoost AA, Poorranjbar M. The interaction between physical activity and fasting on the serum lipid profile during Ramadan. Singapore Med J. 2009; 50(9):897-901.
  6. Lotfi S, Madani M, Tazi A. Boumahmaza M, Talbi M. Variation of cognitive functions and glycemia during physical exercise in Ramadan fasting. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2010; 166(8-9):721–6.
  7. Lotfi S, Madani M, Tazi A, Zerdani I, Boumahmaza M, Talbi M. Variations de la vigilance, de la fréquence cardiaque, et de la température corporelle au cours des exercices physiques pendant le jeune de ramadan. Ann Afr Med. 2013; 6(2):1113-23
  8. Aziz AR, Chia M, Wahid MF, Png W, Wong JT, Teh KC. Effects of Ramadan fasting on maximal bench press strength performance in trained athletes. Proceedings of the III International Conference of Physical Education and Sports Science. Singapore; 2010.
  9. Leiper JB, Junge A, Maughan RJ, Zerguini Y, Dvorak J. Alteration of subjective feelings in football players undertaking their usual training and match schedule during the Ramadan fast. J Sports Sci. 2008; 26(Suppl 3):S55–69.
  10. Aziz AR, Wahid MF, Png W, Jesuvadian CV. Effects of Ramadan fasting on 60 min of endurance running performance in moderately trained men. Br J Sports Med. 2010; 44(7):516-21.
  11. Lotfi S, Madani M, Tazi A, Boumahmaza M, Talbi M. CNS Activation, reaction time, blood pressure and heart rate variation during ramadan intermittent fasting and exercise. World J Sports Sci. 2010; 3(1):37-43.
  12. Ali MR, Amir T. Effects of fasting on visual flicker fusion. Percept Mot Skills. 1989; 69(2):627-31.
  13. Zerguini Y, Kirkendall D, Junge A, Dvorak J. Impact Of Ramadan on physical performance in professional soccer players. Br J Sports Med. 2007; 41(6):398-400.
  14. Waterhouse J. Effects of Ramadan on physical performance: chronobiological considerations. Br J Sports Med. 2010; 44(7):509–15.
  15. Lotfi S, Rahmoun S, Saydi S, Madani M, Tazi A, Talbi M. Changes in states of anxiety and psychosomatic reactions in competition periods during the ramadan fasting. Int J Adv Psychol. 2013; 2(2):112-7.
  16. Chennaoui M, Desgorces F, Drogou C, Boudjemaa B, Tomaszewski A, Depiesse F, et al. Effects of Ramadan fasting on physical performance and metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory parameters in middle-distance runners. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2009; 34(4):587–94.
  17. Karli U, Guvenc A, Aslan A, Hazir T, Acikada C. Influence of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic performance and recovery following short time high intensity exercise. J Sports Sci Med. 2007; 6(4):490–7.
  18. Chaouachi A, Coutts AJ, Chamari K, Wong del P, Chaouachi M, Chtara M, et al. Effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on aerobic and anaerobic performance and perception of fatigue in male elite judo athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2009; 23(9):2702-9.
  19. Kinugasa T, Nair G, Aziz AR. Effects of Ramadan fasting on physical performance and psychological characteristics in youth soccer players. Proceedings of the III International Conference of Physical Education and Sports Science. Singapore; 2010.
  20. Khalfallah T, Chaari N, Henchi MA, Merchaoui I, Bchir N, Akrout M, et al. Evaluation de l’impact du jeune du mois de Ramadan sur la charge physique de travail. Arch Des Maladies Profession Env. 2003; 65(7):564-70.
  21. Boussif M, Bigard AX, Chalabi H, Guezennec CY. Effets du jeûne de Ramadan sur les performances physiques et la consommation maximale d’oxygène (VO2 max) chez les coureurs de demi- fond et les footballeurs. Revue Sci Staps. 2010; 17(7):27-37.
  22. Cazorla G, Léger L. Comment évaluer et développer vos capacités aérobies: epreuves de course navette et épreuve VAMEVAL. AREAPS.1993; 2:123.
  23. Hourcade JC. Etude comparative de deux tests de terrain: le test de l'Université Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2 (TUB 2) et le VAMEVAL. Mémoire pour le diplôme de Maîtrise en STAPS. Bordeaux, France: Faculte des Sciences du Sports et de I’Education Physique de Bordeaux; 1997.
  24. Wechsler D. Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS III). Paris: Centre de Psychologie Appliquée; 2003.
  25. Hindmarch I. Psychomotor function and psychoactive drugs. 1980. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2004; 58(7):S720-40.
  26. Monk TH. A Visual Analogue Scale technique to measure global vigor and affect. Psychiatry Res. 1989; 27(1):89-99.
  27. Cazorla G, Hourcade JC. Etude comparative de deux tests de terrain: le test de l'Université Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2 (TUB II) et le VAMEVAL. Mémoire pour le diplôme de Maîtrise en STAPS. Bordeaux, France: Faculté des Sciences du Sport et de l'Education Physique de Bordeaux; 1997.
  28. Cazorla G, Boussaidi L, Godemet M. Evaluation du rugbyman sur le terrain. Actes du Congrès médical de la Fédération Française de Rugby: Pathologies du rugbyman, épaule, genoux, rachis, physiologie. Deed of Medical Congress of French Federation of Rugby, Lyon, France; 2004. P. 435-56.
  29. Khedder A, Achour N, Asou Messad N, Souzayen A, Nacef T. Etude comparative de l’adaptation de l’organisme à l’effort sur ergocycle pendant et après Ramadan. Méd du sport. 1983; 4:16-7.
  30. Fall A, Sarr M, Mandengue SH, Badji L, Samb A, Gueye L, et al. Effets d’une restriction hydrique et alimentaire prolongée (ramadan) sur la performance et les réponses cardiovasculaires au cours d’un exercice incrémental en milieu tropical chaud. Sci Sports. 2007; 22(1):50–3.
  31. Brikci A, Faynot R, Davenne D. Ramadan et pratique physique. Dans: Bulletin de liaison des professeurs d’éducation physique de l’académie de Reims nº 23-24. Académie de Reims. 2000; 3:3-9.
  32. Below PR, Mora-Rodriguez R, Gonzalez-Alonso J, Coyle EF. Fluid and carbohydrate ingestion independently improve performance during 1 h of intense exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995; 27(2):200–10.
  33. González-Alonso J, Calbet JA, Nielsen B. Metabolic and thermodynamic responses to dehydration-induced reductions in muscle blood flow in exercising humans. J Physiol. 1999; 520(Pt 2):577–89.
  34. Rauch HG, St Clair Gibson A, Lambert EV, Noakes TD. A signalling role for muscle glycogen in the regulation of pace during prolonged exercise. Br J Sports Med. 2005; 39(1):34–8.
  35. Meckel Y, Ismaeel A, Eliakim A. The effect of the Ramadan fast on physical performance and dietary habits in adolescent soccer players. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008; 102(6):651–7.
  36. Wahid MF, Aziz AR, Png W, Lai G, Jesuvadian C. Reproductibility of submaximal responses excise performance during endurance running in the Ramadan fasting month in moderately trained men. Singapore: Youth In Physical Education And Sport; 2010. P. 351-7.
  37. Ba S, Seck D, Kane MO, Seck MB, Sarr FB, Ciss M, et al. Étude comparative de l'effet du jeûne pendant le Ramadan sur la glycémie au repos chez les sportifs et les sédentaires. Dakar Med. 2005; 50(1):22-51.
  38. Ramadan JM, Barac-Nieto M. Cardio-respiratory responses to moderately heavy aerobic exercise during the Ramadan fasts. Saudi Med J. 2000; 21(3):238-44.
  39. Zurovski Y, Eckstein L, Horowitz M. Heat stress and thermal dehydration: lactacidemia and plasma volume regulation. J Appl Physiol. 1991; 71(6):2434–9.
  40. Naghii MR. The significance of water in sport and weight control. Nutr Health. 2000; 14(2):127–32.
  41. Gisolfi CV, Copping JR. Thermal effect of prolonged treadmill exercise in the heat. 1974. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993; 25(3):310–5.
  42. Greenleaf JE, Castle BL. Exercise temperature regulation in man during hypohydration and hyperhydration. J Appl Physiol. 1971; 30(6):847–53.
  43. Sadraoui M, Tabka Z, Sfar H, Zebidi A. Evolution de certains paramètres métaboliques et hormonaux au cours du jeûne de Ramadan. Actes du 1er congrès international sur Ramadan et santé, Casablanca, Janvier; 1994.
  44. Souissi N, Souissi M, Souissi H, Chamari K, Tabka Z, Dogui M, et al. Effect of time of day and partial sleep deprivation on short-term, high-power output. Chronobiol Int. 2008; 25(6):1062–76.
  45. Souissi N, Souissi H, Sahli S, Tabka Z, Dogui M, Ati J, et al. Effect of Ramadan on the diurnal variation in short-term high power output. Chronobiol Int. 2007; 24(5):991-1007.
  46. Warren RE, Frier BM. Hypoglycaemia and cognitive function. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2005; 7(5):493–503.
  47. Monk TH, Leng VC, Folkard S, Weitzman ED. Circadian rhythms in subjective alertness and core body temperature. Chronobiologia. 1983; 10(1):49-55.
  48. Brisswalter J, Legros P. Interactions between energetical and cognitive process: theorical and methodological approaches. Sci Sports. 1996; 11(2):71-80
  49. Chaouachi A, Coutts AJ, Wong del P, Roky R, Mbazaa A, Amri M, et al. Haematological, inflammatory, and immunological responses in elite judo athletes maintaining high training loads during Ramadan. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2009; 34(5):907-15.