Can Fasting in the Holy Month of Ramadan Affect on the Levels of Luteinizing Hormone, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, and Prolactin?

Document Type: Review Article

Authors

1 Surgical Technologist, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

2 General Surgery Specialist Medical School Kashan University of Medical Science Kashan I R IRAN

3 Education office, Esfahan, Iran.

Abstract

Adherence to the recommendations and obligations of Islam is of great importance in achieving a desirable lifestyle. Fasting in the holy month of Ramadan is one of the main principles of Islam, in which Muslims refrain from eating, drinking, oral medications, and smoking from Fajr (pre-dawn) to Maghrib (sunset). Islamic rules dictate that fasting is unacceptable if it causes harm to the health of an individual. Luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and prolactin (PRL), which are secreted by the pituitary gland, play a key role in maintaining health. LH and FSH are predominantly involved in setting the normal function of the reproductive system and PRL has a key role in lactation, and collapsed levels of these hormones is associated with severe health problems. Given the conditions of Islamic fasting and importance of the normalized levels of these hormones in fasting individuals, the effects of Islamic fasting on these parameters must be investigated thoroughly. This review was performed to evaluate the credible published articles collected via searching in databases such as Science Direct, Google Scholar, and PubMed. According to the results, Ramadan fasting has no adverse effects on the concentrations of LH, FSH, and PRL. 
 

Keywords


  1.  Soleimani D, Nematy M, Hashemi M, Khayyatzadeh SS. Effects of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular risk factors: a narrative review. J Fasting Health. 2016; 4(4):140-4.
  2. Mirsane SA, Shafagh S, Oraei N. Effects of fasting in the holy month of Ramadan on the uric acid, urea, and creatinine levels: a narrative review. J Fasting Health. 2016; 4(4):130-5.
  3. Mirsane SA, Shafagh S, Oraei N. Ramadan fasting and thyroid function. J Fasting Health. 2017; 5(2):85-6.
  4. Mirsane SA, Shafagh S, Oraei N. Fasting in the Holy month of Ramadan and lipid profile. J Fasting Health. 2016; 4(3):93-4.
  5. Mirsane SA, Shafagh S. A narrative review on fasting of pregnant women in the Holy month of Ramadan. J Fasting Health. 2016; 4(2):53-6.
  6. Mirsane SA, Shafagh S. Effects of helicobacter pylori infection and western diet on migraine. Gene Cell Tissue. 2016; 3(3):e39212.
  7. Dorrington JH, Moon YS, Armstrong DT. Estradiol-17beta biosynthesis in cultured granulosa
    cells from hypophysectomized immature rats; stimulation by follicle-stimulating hormone. Endocrinology. 1975; 97(5):1328-31.
  8. Kim H, Han W, Ku SY, Suh CS, Kim SH, Choi YM. Feature of amenorrhea in postoperative tamoxifen users with breast cancer. J Gynecol Oncol. 2017; 28(2):e10.
  9. Layman LC, McDonough PG. Mutations of follicle stimulating hormone-β and its receptor in human and mouse. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2000; 161(1-2):9-17.
  10. Choi D. The consequences of mutations in the reproductive endocrine system. Dev Reprod. 2012; 16(4):235-51.
  11. Maqdasy S, Bogenmann L, Batisse-Lignier M, Roche B, Franck F, Desbiez F, et al. Leydig cell tumor in a patient with 49, XXXXY karyotype: a review of literature. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2015; 13(1):72.
  12. Jamil Z, Fatima SS, Ahmed K, Malik R. Anti-mullerian hormone: above and beyond conventional ovarian reserve markers. Dis Markers. 2016; 2016:5246217.
  13. Howles CM. Role of LH and FSH in ovarian function. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2000; 161(1-2):25-30.
  14. Alviggi C, Mollo A, Clarizia R, De Placido G. Exploiting LH in ovarian stimulation. Reprod Biomed Online. 2006; 12(2):221-33.
  15. Majumdar A, Mangal NS. Hyperprolactinemia. J Hum Reprod Sci. 2013; 6(3):168-75.
  16. Luciano AA. Clinical presentation of hyperpro-lactinemia. J Reprod Med. 44(12 Suppl):1085-90.‏
  17. Freeman ME, Kanyicska B, Lerant A, Nagy G. Prolactin: structure, function, and regulation of secretion. Physiol Rev. 2000; 80(4):1523-631.
  18. Mesbahzadeh B, Ghiravani Z, Mehrjoofard H. Effect of Ramadan fasting on secretion of sex hormones in healthy single males. East Mediterr Health J. 2005; 11(5-6):1120-3.
  19. Al-Chalabi S. Effect of Ramadan fasting on sex hormones in infertile male. Med J Tikrit. 2013; 9(2):277-81.
  20. Pajouhi M, Larijani B, Yarahmadi S, Sanjari M, Amini M. Effect of Ramadan on sex hormones and gonadotropins in healthy and young men. Iran J Endocrinol Metab. 2001; 3:25.
  21. Klibanski A, Beitins IZ, Badger T, Little R, McArthur JW. Reproductive function during fasting in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1981; 53(2):258-63.
  22. Azizi F. Serum levels of prolactin, thyrotropin, thyroid hormones, TRH responsiveness, and male reproductive function in intermittent Islamic fasting. Med J Islam Republic Iran. 1991; 5(3):145-8.‏
  23. Bogdan A, Bouchareb B, Touitou Y. Ramadan fasting alters endocrine and neuroendocrine circadian patterns. Meal-time as a synchronizer inhumans? Life Sci. 2001; 68(14):1607-15.
  24. Suryanarayana BV, Kent JR, Meister L, Parlow AF. Pituitary--gonadal axis during prolonged total starvation in obese men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1969; 22(6):767-70.
  25. Ghaderi F, Khameneh S. Effect of Ramadan fasting on sexual desire: the role of hormones or neocortex? J Guilan Univ Med Sci. 2006; 14(56):33-41 (Persian).
  26. Cameron JL, Weltzin TE, McConaha C, Helmreich DL, Kaye WH. Slowing of pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in men after forty-eight hours of fasting. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1991; 73(1):35-41.
  27. Cağlayan E, Göçmen A, Delibas N. Effects of long-term fasting on female hormone levels: Ramadan model. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2014; 41(1):17-9.‏
  28. Bakir SM, Kordy MM, Gader AM, Karrar O. The effects of Ramadan fasting on the levels of gonadotrophins. J Islam Med Assoc North Am. 1992; 24(1):40-3.‏
  29. Talib RA, Canguven O, Al-Rumaihi K, Al Ansari A, Alani M. The effect of fasting on erectile function and sexual desire on men in the month of Ramadan. Urol J. 2015; 12(2):2099-102.
  30. Olson BR, Cartledge T, Sebring N, Defensor R, Nieman L. Short-term fasting affects luteinizing hormone secretory dynamics but not reproductive function in normal-weight sedentary women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995; 80(4):1187-93.
  31. Soules M, Merriggiola MC, Steiner RA, Clifton D, Toivola B, Bremner WJ. Short‐term fasting in normal women: absence of effects on gonadotrophin secretion and the menstrual cycle. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1994; 40(6):725-31.
  32. Bergendahl M, Evans WS, Pastor C, Patel A, Iranmanesh A, Veldhuis JD. Short-term fasting suppresses leptin and (conversely) activates disorderly growth hormone secretion in midluteal phase women--a clinical research center study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999; 84(3):883-94.
  33. Mansi K, Amneh M. Impact of Ramadan fasting on metabolism and on serum levels of some hormones among healthy Jordanian students. J Med Sci. 2007; 7(5):755-61.
  34. Azizi F, Amir Rasouli H, Beheshti S. Evaluation of certain hormones and blood constituents during Islamic fasting month. J Med Assoc Thai. 1986; 69:57A.
  35. Röjdmark S. Influence of short-term fasting on the pituitary-testicular axis in normal men. Horm Res. 1987; 25(3):140-6.
  36. Beitins IZ, Barkan A, Klibanski A, Kyung N, Reppert SM, Badger TM, et al. Hormonal responses to short term fasting in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1985; 60(6):1120-6.
  37. Drezgić M, Penezić Z, Zarković M, Vujović S, Cirić J, Trbojević B, et al. Influence of three-week fasting on gonadotropin pulsatility in obese menstruating women. International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996; 20(7):608-12.
  38. Veldhuis JD, Iranmanesh A, Evans WS, Lizarralde G, Thorner MO, Vance ML. Amplitude suppression of the pulsatile mode of immunoradiometric luteinizing hormone release in fasting-induced hypoandrogenemia in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993; 76(3):587-93.
  39. Tegelman R, Lindeskog P, Carlström K, Pousette Å, Blomstrand R. Peripheral hormone levels in healthy subjects during controlled fasting. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1986; 113(3):457-62.
  40. Alvero R, Kimzey L, Sebring N, Reynolds J, Loughran M, Nieman L, et al. Effects of fasting on neuroendocrine function and follicle development in lean women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998; 83(1):76-80.
  41. Aloi J, Bergendahl M, Iranmanesh A, Veldhuis JD. Pulsatile intravenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone administration averts fasting-induced hypogonadotropism and hypoandrogenemia in healthy, normal weight men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997; 82(5):1543-8.
  42. Abbas SM, Basalamah AH. Effects of Ramadhan fast on male fertility. Arch Androl. 1986; 16(2):161-6.
  43. ‏Samuels M, Kramer P. Differential effects of
    short-term fasting on pulsatile thyrotropin, gonadotropin, and alpha-subunit secretion in healthy men--a clinical research center study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996; 81(1):32-6.
  44. Bahreyni S, Mazidi M, Rezaie P, Vakili R, Norouzy A, Hashemy SI, et al. The effects of Ramadan fasting on the level of sex hormones in pre-menarche girls in Mashhad, Iran. J Fast Health. 2015; 3(1):43-9.
  45. Zangeneh F, Salman Yazdi R, Naghizadeh MM, Abedinia N. Effect of Ramadan fasting on stress neurohormones in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Family Reprod Health. 2015; 9(2):
    51-7.
  46. Shahabi S, Esmaeilzadeh S, Amiri MG, Faramarzi M, Firouzjahee AR, Esmaeili T. Does Islamic fasting affect gonadotropin around female ovulation? Int J Fertil Steril. 2010; 4(3):94-7.
  47. Skałba P, Zieba M, Olejek A. Testosterone and SHBG levels in blood serum in women with anorexia nervosa. Wiad Lek. 2001; 54(9-10):532-6.
  48. Dhungana S, Ojha SP, Chapagai M, Tulachan P. Pituitary adenoma presenting as anorexia nervosa: a case report. J Psychiat Assoc Nepal. 2017; 4(1):57-9.
  49. Wiegelmann W, Solbach HG. Effects of LH-RH on plasma levels of LH and FSH in anorexia nervosa. Horm Metab Res. 1972; 4(5):404.
  50. Travaglini P, Beck-Peccoz P, Ferrari C, Ambrosi B, Paracchi A, Severgnini A, et al. Some aspects of hypothalamic-pituitary function in patients with anorexia nervosa. Acta Endocrinol. 1976; 81(2):252-62.
  51. Bergendahl M, Aloi JA, Iranmanesh A, Mulligan TM, Veldhuis JD. Fasting suppresses pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and enhances orderliness of LH release in young but not older men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998; 83(6):1967-75.
  52. Yarahmadi S, Larijani B, Sanjari M, Javadi E, Jalili RB. Effects of Ramadan on gonadotropins and sex hormones in heal the woman. Iran J Endocrinol Metab. 2001; 3:26.
  53. Turcato E, Zamboni M, De Pergola G, Armellini F, Zivelonghi A, Bergamo‐Andreis IA, et al. Interrelationships between weight loss, body fat distribution and sex hormones in pre‐and postmenopausal obese women. J Intern Med. 1997; 241(5):363-72.
  54. Johnston DG, Blesa-Malpica G, Burrin JM, Waugh C, Cook D, Orskov H, et al. Dopamine blockade inhibits starvation ketosis in man. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1983; 19(3):389-96.
  55. Carlson HE, Drenick EJ, Chopra IJ, Hershman JM. Alterations in basal and TRH-stimulated serum levels of thyrotropin, prolactin, and thyroid hormones in starved obese men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1977; 45(4):707-13.
  56. Croxson MS, Hall TD, Kletzky OA, Jaramillo JE, Nicoloff JT. Decreased serum thyrotropin induced by fasting. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1977; 45(3):560-8.
  57. Jung RT, Rosenstock J, Wood SM, Birch G, Chalmers RA, Mashiter K, et al. Dopamine in the pituitary adaptation to starvation in man. Postgrad Med J. 1985; 61(717):571-4.‏
  58. Burger AG, Weissel M, Berger M. Starvation induces a partial failure of triiodothyronine to inhibit the thyrotropinresponse to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1980; 51(5):1064-7.‏
  59. Wakeling A, de Souza VF, Gore MB, Sabur M, Kingstone D, Boss AM. Amenorrhoea, body weight and serum hormone concentrations, with particular reference to prolactin and thyroid hormones in anorexia nervosa. Psychol Med. 1979; 9(2):265-72.
  60. Pirke KM, Fichter MM, Pahl J. Noradrenaline, trijodthyronine, growth hormone and prolactin during weight gain inanorexia nervosa. Int J Eating Disord. 1985; 4(4):499-509.
  61. Beumont PJ, Friesen HG, Gelder MG, Kolakowska T. Plasma prolactin and luteinizing hormone levels in anorexia nervosa. Psychol Med. 1974; 4(2):219-21.
  62. Beumont PJ, George GC, Pimstone BL, Vinik AI. Body weight and the pituitary response to hypothalamic releasing hormones in patients with anorexia nervosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1976; 43(3):487-96.
  63. Isaacs AJ, Leslie RD, Gomez J, Bayliss R. The effect of weight gain on gonadotrophins and prolactin in anorexia nervosa. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1980; 94(2):145-50.
  64. Mecklenburg RS, Loriaux DL, Thompson RH, Andersen AE, Lipsett MB. Hypothalamic dysfunction in patients with anorexia nervosa. Medicine. 1974; 53(2):147-59.
  65. Macaron C, Wilber JF, Green O, Freinkel N. Studies of growth hormone (GH), thyrotropin (TSH) and prolactin (PRL) secretion in anorexia nervosa. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1978; 3(2):181-5.
  66. Buvat J, Lemaire A, Buvat‐Herbaut M, Lepretre P, Fourlinnie JC. Psychoneuroendocrine investi-gations in 115 cases of female anorexia nervosa at the time of their maximum emaciation. Int J Eating Disord. 1983; 2(4):117-28.
  67. Vigersky RA, Loriaux DL, Andersen AE, Mecklenburg RS, Vaitukaitis JL. Delayed pituitary hormone response to LRF and TRF in patients with anorexia nervosa and with secondary amenorrhea associated with simple weight loss. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1976; 43(4):893-900.
  68. Catalá-López F, Hutton B, Driver JA, Ridao M, Valderas JM, Gènova-Maleras R, et al. Anorexia nervosa and cancer: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Syst Rev. 2017; 6(1):137.
  69. Smith K, Lipari R. Women of childbearing age and opioids. The CBHSQ Report. New York: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2017.
  70. Long MG, Waterson EJ, MacRae KD, Murray-Lyon IM. Alcohol consumption and the risk of first trimester miscarriage. J Obstet Gynaecol. 1994; 14(2):69-70.
  71. Saito T, Ubara Y, Suwabe T, Higa Y, Nakanishi S, Hoshino J, et al. A patient with pregnancy-related acute abdomen after hemodialysis for over 18 years. Clin Nephrol. 2009; 71(3):345-9.
  72. Azofeifa A, Yeung LF, Alverson CJ, Beltrán-Aguilar E. Peer reviewed: oral health conditions and dental visits among pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, national health and nutrition examination survey, 1999–2004. Prev Chron Dis. 2014; 11:E163.