Assessment of Microbial and Chemical Quality of a Ready to Eat Food, Olivier Salad, in Mashhad City

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Health & Food Safety Specialist, Department of Nutrition, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences

2 Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

3 Department of Food Hygiene and Aquatics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

4 PhD in Nutritional Sciences, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

Introduction: Olivier salad is one of the most common cold fast foods in our country that is nutritious because of its various ingredients, so it is susceptible to bacterial contamination. This study aimed to evaluate the chemical and microbial quality of Olivier salads that were sold in Mashhad groceries. Methods: In this study, 26 samples from two types of Olivier salad (Chicken (17 samples) and Meat (9 samples) were collected from the local markets. Samples were transferred to the laboratory in cold flasks and then microbial (coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp, clostridium perfringens , mold, and yeast), and chemical quality (levels of potassium sorbate, potassium benzoate, and benzoate alone) were evaluated  based on the Iran national standard No. 17813 and. 17813-a-1, respectively. Results: Chemical tests in the samples showed no significant difference between the amounts of potassium sorbate, potassium benzoat, and benzoate alone (P>0.05) in different samples. Of the total samples, 7.7% (2/26) and 23.07% (6/26) of the Olivier salad samples were contaminated with Salmonella and Escherichia coli, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was negative in all of the samples. Conclusion: Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus have particular importance in food contaminations. Lack of hygiene during production, contamination of raw materials, and elevation of storage temperature are  critical factors for the increased level of contamination. So control and monitoring of the food chain is necessary.

Keywords


  1. Jalali M. SPR, Ghokasian K. Industrial potato salad microbial quality improvement in Isfahan. Iran. J clinic infects dis. 2007;12:53-9.
  2. HF M. Economic development pertinent to chilled foods. Chilled foods – The state of the art. Elsevier Science publishers, 1990.
  3. Practice CIco. Code of hygienic practice for refrigerated packaged foods with extended shelf life. 1999.
  4. Feglo P, and Sakyi, K. Bacterial contamination of street vending food in Kumasi. J Biomed Sci. 2012;1:1-8.
  5. Hwang A, and Huang, L. Ready to eat foods, Microbial Concerns and Control Measures. 2010. 271 p.
  6. George AE, Levett PN. Effect of temperature and pH on survival of Listeria monocytogenes in coleslaw. Int J Food Microbio. 1990;11(3):345-9.
  7. Practice CIco. Code of hygienic practice for refrigerated packaged foods with extended shelf life1999. 46 p.
  8. Gounot A-M. Psychrophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms. Experientia. 1986;42(11):1192-7.
  9. Lau O-W, Wong S-K. Contamination in food from packaging material. J Chromatogr A. 2000;882(1):255-70.
  10. Holecková B, Holoda E, Fotta M, Kalinácova V, Gondol' J, Grolmus J. Occurrence of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in food. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2002;9(2):179-82.
  11. Argudín MÁ, Mendoza MC, Rodicio MR. Food Poisoning and Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxins. Toxins. 2010;2(7):1751-73.
  12. Kadariya J, Smith TC, Thapaliya D. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcal Food-Borne Disease: An Ongoing Challenge in Public Health.
    Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:9.
  13. CDC) CfDCaP. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks --- United States, 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59(31):973-9.
  14. Brynestad S, Granum PE. Clostridium perfringens and foodborne infections. Int J Food Microbiol. 2002;74(3):195-202.
  15. Labbe RG, Juneja VK. Chapter 10 - Clostridium perfringens∗∗Mention of brand or firm name does not constitute an endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture over others of a similar nature not mentioned. In: Dodd CER, Aldsworth T, Stein RA, Cliver DO, Riemann HP, editors. Foodborne Dis. (Third Edition): Academic Press; 2017. p. 235-42.
  16. Moore G, Griffith C. A comparison of surface sampling methods for detecting coliforms on food contact surfaces. Food Microbiol. 2002;19(1):65-73.
  17. Hunter AC. Uses and Limitations of the Coliform Group in Sanitary Control of Food Production. Food Res Int. 1939;4:531-8.
  18. Ghorai S, Banik SP, Verma D, Chowdhury S, Mukherjee S, Khowala S. Fungal biotechnology in food and feed processing. Food Res Int. 2009;42(5):577-87.
  19. Gibson AM, Hocking AD. Advances in the predictive modeling of fungal growth in food. Trends Food Sci Technol. 1997;8(11):353-8.
  20. Pylypiw HM, Grether MT. Rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method for the analysis of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in foods. J Chromatogr A. 2000;883(1):299-304.
  21. Ceylan E, Fung DYC, Sabah JR. Antimicrobial Activity and Synergistic Effect of Cinnamon with Sodium Benzoate or Potassium Sorbate in Controlling Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Apple Juice. J Food Sci. 2004;69(4):FMS102-FMS6.
  22. JM Jay ML, DA Golden. Modern food microbiology‏. Edition S, editor. 2008.
  23. Tavakoli H.R. Fk, Karimi Zarchi A.A., Heydari E. Bacteriological quality of ready to eat food in four military restaurants. J mil med. 2012;13:207-12.
  24. Tajbakhsh F. TE, Momeni M. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium in traditional and industrial Olivier salads in Shahrekord city. J Food Microbiol. 2015;2:39-48.
  25. Normanno G, Firinu A, Virgilio S, Mula G, Dambrosio A, Poggiu A, et al. Coagulase-positive Staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus in food products marketed in Italy. IntJ Food Microbiol. 2005;98(1):73-9.
  26. Hennekinne J-A, De Buyser M-L, Dragacci S. Staphylococcus aureus and its food poisoning toxins: characterization and outbreak investigation.
    FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2012;36(4):815-36.
  27. Khoramrooz S.S. Sm, Khosravani S.A.M., Farhang Falah M., Mahmoudi Y., Sharifi A. Microbial contamination determination of cream suit, traditional ice cream and olovia in Yasuj city in 2014. Armaghan Danesh 2015;20:526-37.
  28. Kaseb F. SM, Abdar M.*, Aminalroayaei H., Fallahzadeh H. The prevalence of salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus in industrial Olivier salad in Yazd in 2013. Toloo-e-Behdasht. 2015;14:51-9.
  29. Malorny B, Paccassoni E, Fach P, Bunge C, Martin A, Helmuth R. Diagnostic Real-Time PCR for Detection of Salmonella in Food. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70(12):7046-52.
  30. Spricigo DA, Bardina C, Cortés P, Llagostera M. Use of a bacteriophage cocktail to control Salmonella in food and the food industry. Int J Food Microbiol. 2013;165(2):169-74.
  31. Doyle Mp, Bains Nj, Schoeni Jl, Foster Em. Fate of Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus in Meat Salads Prepared with Mayonnaise. J Food Prot. 1982;45(2):152-6.
  32. Angelidis AS, Chronis EN, Papageorgiou DK, Kazakis II, Arsenoglou KC, Stathopoulos GA. Non-lactic acid, contaminating microbial flora in ready-to-eat foods: A potential food-quality index. Food Microbiol. 2006;23(1):95-100.
  33. Turner Km, Restaino L, Frampton Ew. Efficacy of Chromocult Coliform Agar for Coliform and Escherichia coli Detection in Foods. J Food Prot. 2000;63(4):539-41.
  34. MD Wogu II. Microbial Quality of Ready-to-Eat Salad Sold in Benin City, Southern Nigeria. Int J Sci Technol. 2013;2(2):26-38.
  35. Vahabi Anaraki N. AM. Determination of microbial contamination of olovie salads consumed in Isfahan. J food microbiol. 2016;3:85-96.
  36. Zengin N, Yüzbaşıoğlu D, Ünal F, Yılmaz S, Aksoy H. The evaluation of the genotoxicity of two food preservatives: Sodium benzoate and potassium benzoate. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49(4):763-9.
  37. Dong C, Mei Y, Chen L. Simultaneous determination of sorbic and benzoic acids in food dressing by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1117(1):109-14.
  38. Tfouni SAV, Toledo MCF. Estimates of the mean per capita daily intake of benzoic and sorbic acids in Brazil. Food Additi Contam. 2002;19(7):647-54.