Estimating the Years of Life Lost and Mortality Caused By COVID-19 in Mashhad, the Second-Largest City in Iran

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

2 Surgical Oncology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

3 International UNESCO Center for Health Related Basic Sciences and Human Nutrition, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

4 Department of Biostatistics & Epidemiology, School of Health, Management & Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

5 Deputy of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

6 Brighton & Sussex Medical School, Division of Medical Education, Falmer, Brighton, Sussex BN1 9PH, UK.

7 Determinants of Health Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.


Introduction: The disability-adjusted life years (DALY) may provide a better indicator of the burden of disease than mortality. This study provides the estimates of both Years of Life Lost (YLL) and COVID-19 mortality in Mashhad. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Mashhad, the second-most populous city in Iran. The mortality data in the population served by Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS) were extracted from the national mortality data system. In this system, all deaths in the whole of the country are recorded based on the International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition (ICD10). The data in the current study comprised all cases of death recorded in the population under the auspices of MUMS from January 21st to April 19th 2019 and 2020 which were transferred to SPSS software after sorting. The method recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) was used for the estimation of YLL. Results: The YLL per 1000 caused by COVID-19 was 1.2 years and increased with age, and was higher in men (1.6 years) compared to women (0.9 years). The incidence of COVID-19 was higher in the urban area (9.8%) compared to rural areas (4.8%). During the study period, COVID-19 was the fourth most prevalent cause of death in Mashhad after cardiovascular disease (35.4%), cancer (12.9%) and respiratory disease (10.6%). Conclusions: The YLL per 1000 caused by COVID-19 was 1.2 years, increased with age and was greater in males than in females. 


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  • Receive Date: 12 July 2021
  • Revise Date: 25 November 2021
  • Accept Date: 20 December 2021
  • First Publish Date: 20 December 2021