Comparison of the Effect of Leucine and L-Arginine Supplementation Before and After Resistance Training On Athletes' Protein Catabolism Indices in Ramadan

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Master of Sports Physiology, Department of Sports Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr Branch, Islamshahr, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Sports Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr Branch, Islamshahr, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Sports Management, Faculty of Physical Education, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr Branch, Islamshahr, Iran.

Abstract

Introduction: Improving adaptive responses to exercise through dietary interventions, especially sports supplements, has been considered. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of Leucine and L-arginine supplementation before and after resistance training on athletes' protein catabolism indices during Ramadan. Methods: In this study,40 male bodybuilders were selected and randomly divided into four groups of resistance training(n=10) and resistance training group and Leucine supplementation(n=10), resistance training group and L-arginine supplementation(n=10) and the control group(n=10). Leucine and L-arginine tablets were poured as powder into 1g empty capsules and placebo was in the form of 1g capsules, the same shape, size and color of 1g Leucine and L-arginine tablets. The amount of supplements was 0.1g per kg of body weight. The training protocol of the two training groups was performed for eight weeks in three sessions per week.To analyze the data, the statistical method of analysis of covariance was used and to determine the differences between the groups, Bonferroni post hoc test and at a significant level in all tests, P≤0.05 was considered. Results: Statistical analysis did not show a significant difference between groups in uric acid variable(p=0.097). Also, the results showed that resistance training significantly decreased urea(p=0.001), creatinine(p=0.001) and increased hypoxanthine(p=0.000) and xanthine oxidase(p=0.000). Resistance training with Leucine and L-arginine supplementation increased there was a significant urea, creatinine and a significant decrease in hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase compared to the resistance training group. There was a significant difference between the two groups of supplements only in the amount of xanthine oxidase. In the resistance training group and Leucine supplementation, the amount of xanthine oxidase was significantly greater than in the resistance training group and L-arginine supplementation. Conclusion: Finally,resistance training with Leucine and L-arginine supplementation in fasting athletes could provide a platform for reducing protein catabolism due to exercise and it can be said that coaches and athletes to reduce catabolism due to exercise. During Ramadan, they can take Leucine and L-arginine supplements to increase performance and reduce damage.

Keywords


  1. Ziaee V, Razaei M, Ahmadinejad Z, Shaikh H, Yousefi R, Yarmohammadi L, et al. he changes of metabolic produring Ramadan fasting. Singapore Med J 2006; 47:409-14.
  2. Waterhouse J. Effects of Ramadan on physical performance: chronobiological considerations. Br J Sports Med 2010; 44: 509-15.
  3. Nelson W, Cadotte L, Halberg F. Circadian timing of single daily "meal" affects survival of mice. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1973; 144: 766-9.
  4. Raudenbush. Bryan,C. Nathan,E.William. Enhancing athletic performance through the administration of peppermint oder.Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2001, (23):156-160
  5. Blockl,G. Jensen,CD. Mirrow,J.D.Holland,N.Norkus,E.P.(). The effect of vitamin C and E on biomarkers of oxidative stress depends on baselin level. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2008, (45):377-384
  6. Mc Ardle, W.D; Katch, F.T; Katch, V.L. Exercise physiology Fifth ed. Lipincott Willams: 2001.
  7. Nomani, M.A. Dietary fat, blood cholesterol and uric acid levels during Ramadan fasting. International J Ramadan Fasting Research, 1997: 1(1):1-6.
  8. Locke, M; Noble E. Exercise and stress response, the role of stress proteins. Boca Ration:CRC pressllc ,January. 22Gp. 2002.
  9. McLellan TM, Pasiakos SM, Lieberman HR. Effects of Protein in Combination with Carbohydrate Supplements on Acute or Repeat Endurance Exercise Performance: A Systematic Review. Sports Medicine. 2014;44(4):535-50.
  10. Pasiakos SM, McClung HL, McClung JP, Margolis LM, Andersen NE, Cloutier GJ, et al. Leucine-enriched essential amino acid supplementation during moderate steady state exercise enhances postexercise muscle protein synthesis. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2011;94(3):809-18
  11. Burd NA, West DW, Moore DR, Atherton PJ, Staples AW, Prior T, et al. Enhanced amino acid sensitivity of myofibrillar protein synthesis persists for up to 24 h after resistance exercise in young men. The Journal of nutrition. 2011;141(4):568-73.
  12. Dickinson JM, Volpi E, Rasmussen BB. Exercise and nutrition to target protein synthesis impairments in aging skeletal muscle. Exercise and sport sciences reviews. 2013 Oct;41(4):216.
  13. Volpi E, Kobayashi H, Sheffield-Moore M, Mittendorfer B, Wolfe RR. Essential amino acids are primarily responsible for the amino acid stimulation of muscle protein anabolism in healthy elderly adults. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2003 Aug 1;78(2):250-8.
  14. Gil JH, Kim CK. Effects of different doses of Leucine ingestion following eight weeks of resistance exercise on protein synthesis and hypertrophy of skeletal muscle in rats. J Exerc Nutrition Biochem. 2015;19(1):31. doi: 10.5717/jenb.2015.19.1.31
  15. SG. H. Eine methods das lysin zu isolieren ,nebst einigen Bemerkungen uber das lysatinin. Z Physiol Chem. 1895:297-305.
  16. Khalaf D, Krüger M, Wehland M, Infanger M, Grimm D. The Effects of Oral l-Arginine and l-Citrulline Supplementation on Blood Pressure. Nutrients. 2019 Jul 22;11(7):1679. doi: 10.3390/nu11071679. PMID: 31336573; PMCID: PMC6683098.
  17. McConell GK. Effects of L-arginine supplementation on exercise metabolism. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care. 2007;10(1):46-51.
  18. Wu G, Bazer FW, Davis TA, Kim SW, Li P, Rhoads JM, et al. Arginine metabolism and nutrition in growth, health and disease. Amino acids. 2009;37(1):153-68.
  19. Kim SW, Wu G. Regulatory role for amino acids in mammary gland growth and milk synthesis. Amino acids. 2009;37(1):89-95.
  20. Murray AW. The biological significance of purine salvage. Annual review of biochemistry. 1971;40(1):811-26.
  21. Sahlin K, Tonkonogi M, Söderlund K. Plasma hypoxanthine and ammonia in humans during prolonged exercise. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology. 1999;80(5):417-22
  22. Waterhouse J. Effects of Ramadan on physical performance: chronobiological considerations. Br J ports Med 2010; 44: 509-15.
  23. Nelson W, Cadotte L, Halberg F. Circadian timing of single daily "meal" affects survival of mice. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1973; 144: 766-9.
  24. Tipton K, Wolfe R. Protein and amino acids for athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences 2004; 22(1): 65-79.
  25. Layman DK, Walker DA. Potential importance of Leucine in treatment of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. J Nutr 2006; 136: 319-323.
  26. Hartman JW, Moore DR, Phillips SM: Resistance training reduces holebody protein turnover and improves net protein retention in untrained young males. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2006, 31(5):557-564.

27- Azwany N, Aziz AI, Mohammad W. The impact of Ramadan fasting on hydration status of type 2 diabetics in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan. J Kesihatan Masyarakat 2004; 31-4.

28- Indral MR, Satuman L, Widodo E, Tinny EH, Endang SW, Soemardini S. Study of some biochemical parameters in young men as effected by Ramadan fasting. J Kedokteran Yarsi 2007; 15(1): 012-016.

  1. Bizheh N, Jaafari M. Effects of regular aerobic exercise on cardiorepiratory fitness and levels of fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer and uric acid in healthy and inactive middle aged men. J Sharekord Univ Med Sci. 2012 July, Aug; 14(3): 20-29.

30.Degoutte F, Jouanel P, Bègue RJ, Colombier M, Lac G, Pequiqnot JM, et al. Food restriction, performance,biochemical, psychological, and endocrine changes in Judo athletes. Int J Sports Med 2006; 27: 9-18

31- Haghdoost AA, PoorRanjbar M. The interaction between physical activity and fasting on the serum lipidprofile during Ramadan. Singapore Med Orginal Article J 2009; 50(9): 897-901.

  1. Trappe, T.R. Williams, J. Carrithers, U . Raue, B. Esmarck, M. Kjaer, and R. Hickner. Influence of age and resistance exercise on human skeletal muscle proteolysis: a microdialysis approach. J Physiol, 2004; 554, 803-13.
  2. Zielinski J, Kusy K. Hypoxanthine: A Universal Metabolic Indicator of Training Status in Competitive Sports. Exercise and sport sciences reviews. 2015;43(4):214-21.
  3. Sjödin B, Westing YH. Changes in plasma concentration of hypoxanthine and uric acid in man with short-distance running at various intensities. International journal of sports medicine. 1990;11(06):493-5.
  4. Sahlin K, Tonkonogi M, Söderlund K. Plasma hypoxanthine and ammonia in humans during prolonged exercise. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology. 1999;80(5):417-22.
  5. Chung Liu,C. Huang,C. Lin,W. Hsieh,C. Huang,S. Lin, S. Yang,S. Lycopene supplementation attenuated xanthine oxidase and myeloperoxidase activities in skeletal muscle tissues of rats after exhaustive exercise. British Journal of Nutrition. 2005; ( 94): 595–601
  6. Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, Chandra N. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Pharmacogn Rev. 2010 Jul;4(8):118-26. doi: 10.4103/0973-7847.70902. PMID: 22228951; PMCID: PMC3249911.
  • Receive Date: 14 January 2022
  • Revise Date: 13 February 2022
  • Accept Date: 23 February 2022
  • First Publish Date: 23 February 2022