Modelling of Staphylococcus Aureus under the Effect of Carum Copticum Essential Oil, pH, Temperature, and Inoculum Level

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Food Hygiene and Aquaculture, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

2 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.


Staphylococcus aureus is among the major causes of foodborne outbreaks globally. To limit its potential risks and predict its growth behaviors, it is crucial to define the growth boundaries of Staphylococcus aureus. So, this experiment was designed to estimate the growth behavior of Staphylococcus aureus in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth while affected by various concentrations of Carum copticum EO (0, 0.015, 0.030, 0.045%), pH (5, 6, 7), temperature (25, 35 ˚C), and inoculum levels (103, 105 CFU ml-1). The assay was performed with 48 treatment conditions in triplicate. Visible turbidity represents growth onset was checked daily during 30 days of trial. According to the accelerated failure time (AFT) approach, a parametric survival model was chosen to predict the impact of selected variables on Staphylococcus aureus growth. GC-MS assay had quantified sixteen (16) compounds constituting 98.88% of pure oil. Based on our findings, the major components of essential oil were identified as thymol (57.18%), ρ-cymene (22.55%), γ-terpinene (13.07%), and trans-anethole (1.7%). The MIC value of the EO was 0.625 μl ml-1. The median time to detection of bacterial growth was six days. All the predictor variables showed a significant effect on time to initiate the bacterial growth (p < 0.05). The ultimate model could precisely estimate the growth responses of Staphylococcus aureus. 


  1. Jamshidi A, Kazerani HR, Seifi HA, Moghaddas E. Growth limits of Staphylococcus aureus as a function of temperature, acetic acid, NaCl concentration, and inoculum level. Iranian J Vet Res 2008;9(4):353-9.
  2. Jomehpour N, Eslami G, Khalili MB. The effect of Ferula assa-foetida L and Carum copticum hydroalcoholic extract on the expression levels of Staphylococcus aureus genes involved in quorum sensing. Jundishapur J microbio 2016;9(10).
  3. Soltaninezhad B, Khanzadi S, Hashemi M, Azizzadeh M. Inhibition of staphylococcus aureus in hamburger using chitosan film containing the nanoemulsion of trachyspermum ammi and bunium persicum essential oils. J Nutr Fast health 2020;8(4):231-7.
  4. Cao H, Wang T, Yuan M, Yu J, Xu F. Growth and modeling of staphylococcus aureus in flour products under isothermal and nonisothermal conditions. J food Prot. 2017;80(3):523-31.
  5. MedVeďoVá A, VAlík Ľ, StudenIčoVá A. The effect of temperature and water activity on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Czech J Food Sci. 2010;27(Special Issue 2):28-35.
  6. Sutherland J, Bayliss A, Roberts T. Predictive modelling of growth of Staphylococcus aureus: the effects of temperature, pH and sodium chloride. Inter J Food Microbiol. 1994;21(3):217-36.
  7. Valero A, Pérez-Rodríguez F, Carrasco E, Fuentes-Alventosa JM, García-Gimeno R, Zurera G. Modelling the growth boundaries of staphylococcus aureus: effect of temperature, pH and water activity. J Inter J Food Microbio. 2009;133(1-2):186-94.
  8. Grădinaru A, Trifan A, Şpac A, Brebu M, Miron A, Aprotosoaie A. Antibacterial activity of traditional spices against lower respiratory tract pathogens: combinatorial effects of Trachyspermum ammi essential oil with conventional antibiotics. J Let Applied Microbiol. 2018;67(5):449-57.
  9. Hassan W, Gul S, Rehman S, Noreen H, Shah Z, Mohammadzai I, et al. Chemical composition, essential oil characterization and antimicrobial activity of Carum copticum. J Vitam Miner 2016;5(139):2376.
  10. Rabiey S, Hosseini H, Rezaei M. Use Carum copticum essential oil for controlling the Listeria monocytogenes growth in fish model system. J Brazilian J Microbio. 2014;45:89-96.
  11. Shakeri G, Jamshidi A, Khanzadi S, Azizzadeh M. Modeling of Salmonella typhimurium growth under the effects of Carum copticum essential oil, temperature, pH and inoculum size. Vet Res Forum. 2017;8(1):59.
  12. Mahboubi M, Kazempour N. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Satureja hortensis and Trachyspermum copticum essential oil. Iranian J Microbiol. 2011;3(4):194.
  13. Stanković DM. Sensitive voltammetric determination of thymol in essential oil of Carum copticum seeds using boron-doped diamond electrode. J Analyt Biochem. 2015;486:1-4.
  14. Kazemi Oskuee R, Behravan J, Ramezani M. Chemical composition, antimicrobial activity and antiviral activity of essential oil of Carum copticum from Iran. J Avicenna J Phytomed. 2011;1(2):83-90.
  15. Grădinaru A, Trifan A, Şpac A, Brebu M, Miron A, Aprotosoaie A. Antibacterial activity of traditional spices against lower respiratory tract pathogens: combinatorial effects of Trachyspermum ammi essential oil with conventional antibiotics. J Let Applied Microbiol. 2018;67(5):449-57.
  16. Jamshidi A, Khanzadi S, Azizi M, Azizzadeh M, Hashemi M. Modeling the growth of Staphylococcus aureus as affected by black zira (Bunium persicum) essential oil, temperature, pH and inoculum levels. Vet Res Forum. 2014;5(2):107.
  17. Ratkowsky D, Ross T. Modelling the bacterial growth/no growth interface. J Let Applied Microbio. 1995;20(1):29-33.
  18. Basti AA, Misaghi A, Khaschabi D, Technology. Growth response and modelling of the effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil, pH and temperature on Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. J LWT-Food Sci. 2007;40(6):973-81.
  19. Zhao L, Montville T, Schaffner DW. Time-to-detection, percent-growth-positive and maximum growth rate models for Clostridium botulinum 56A at multiple temperatures. Inter J Food Microbiol. 2002;77(3):187-97.
  20. Adams RP. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry: Allured publishing corporation Carol Stream, IL; 2007.
  21. Chandrasekaran M, Venkatesalu V. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Syzygium jambolanum seeds. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;91(1):105-8.
  22. Mann C, Markham J. A new method for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration of essential oils. J Applied Microbiol. 1998;84(4):538-44.
  23. Kleinbaum DG, Klein M. Survival analysis: Springer; 2010.
  24. Giannuzzi L, Contreras E, Zaritzky N. Modeling the aerobic growth and decline of Staphylococcus aureus as affected by pH and potassium sorbate concentration. J Food Prot. 1999;62(4):356-62.
  25. Leistner L. Hurdle technology applied to meat products of the shelf stable product and intermediate moisture food types. Properties of water in foods: Springer; 1985; 309-29.
  26. Koutsoumanis K, Lambropoulou K, Nychas GE. A predictive model for the non-thermal inactivation of Salmonella enteritidis in a food model system supplemented with a natural antimicrobial. J Inter J Food Microbiol. 1999;49(1-2):63-74.
  27. Tienungoon S, Ratkowsky D, McMeekin T, Ross T. Growth limits of Listeria monocytogenes as a function of temperature, pH, NaCl, and lactic acid. J Applied Environ Microbiol. 2000;66(11):4979-87.
  28. Tassou C, Koutsoumanis K, Nychas G-J. Inhibition of Salmonella enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus in nutrient broth by mint essential oil. J Food Res Inter. 2000;33(3-4):273-80.
  29. Buldain D, Gortari Castillo L, Marchetti ML, Julca Lozano K, Bandoni A, Mestorino N. Modeling the Growth and Death of Staphylococcus aureus against Melaleuca armillaris Essential Oil at Different pH Conditions. J Antibiot. 2021;10(2):222.
  30. Tadele A, Gemeda N, Lemma H, Girma B, Tesfaye B, Debella A, et al. Broad-spectrum antimicrobials from the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi. Ethiopian J Public Health Nutr. 2020;2(2).
  31. Oroojalian F, Kasra-Kermanshahi R, Azizi M, Bassami MR. Phytochemical composition of the essential oils from three Apiaceae species and their antibacterial effects on food-borne pathogens. J Food Chem. 2010;120(3):765-70.
  32. Raja S, Ashraf M, Anjum A, Javeed A, Ijaz T, Attiq A. Antibacterial activity of essential oils extracted from medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Ani Plant Sci. 2016;26:415-23.
  33. Mohammadzadeh A. In vitro antibacterial activity of essential oil and ethanolic extract of Ajowan (Carum copticum) against some food-borne pathogens. J Global Pharma Technol. 2017;9(4):20-5.