The Impact of Highly-Intensive Interval Physical Fitness Course Using Royal Jelly Supplementation on Lipid Profile in Fat and Obese Middle-Aged Men

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Gachsaran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gachsaran, Iran.



Introduction: Royal jelly contains large amounts of phenolic compounds from the flavonoid family, which can improve the lipid profile with exercise. This study seeks to study the impact of highly intensive interval training (HIIT) using royal jelly consumption on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in overweight and obese middle-aged men. Methods: In this study, 60 middle-aged men were randomly put into 4 groups as foolow: 1) control + Placbo, 2) training, 3) royal jelly supplementation, and 4) training + royal jelly supplementation. Subjects in the experimental groups of training and training + royal jelly supplementation groups performed the training protocol. The HIIT protocol was implemented for 8 weeks with high intensity of 85-95% of the maximum heart rate, and active rest periods included 60-70% of the maximum heart rate. Participants in the royal jelly supplementation groups received 1000 mg capsule once per day. SPSS software version 22, one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test were all used to perform intergroup data analysis and dependent sample t-test was used to perform intra-group data analysis. The significance level was considered at P≤0.05. Results: HIIT training, consumption of royal jelly and training + royal jelly supplementation showed a reduction in serum levels of LDL, TC, TG and an increase in HDL in overweight and obese middle-aged men (p ≥ 0.05). Conclusion: HIIT combined with royal jelly supplementation can improve lipid profile in obese or overweight people who are prone to cardiovascular disease and various types of diabetes.


  1. Semlitsch T, Stigler FL, Jeitler K, Horvath K, Siebenhofer A. Management of overweight and obesity in primary care - A systematic overview of international evidence‐based guidelines. Obesity Reviews. 2019;20(9):1218-30.
  2. Chooi YC, Ding C, Magkos F. The epidemiology of obesity. Metabolism. 2019;92:6-10.
  3. Niiranen TJ, Vasan RS. Epidemiology of cardiovascular disease: recent novel outlooks on risk factors and clinical approaches. Expert review of cardiovascular therapy. 2016;14(7):855-69.
  4. Ahluwalia A, Gladwin M, Coleman GD, Hord N, Howard G, Kim‐Shapiro DB, Lajous M, Larsen FJ, Lefer DJ, McClure LA, Nolan BT. Dietary nitrate and the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease: report from a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Workshop. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2016;5(7):e003402.
  5. Ramos-Lopez O, Riezu-Boj JI, Milagro FI, Cuervo M, Goni L, Martinez JA. Prediction of blood lipid phenotypes using obesity-related genetic polymorphisms and lifestyle data in subjects with excessive body weight. International Journal of Genomics. 2018 ; 19;2018.
  6. Errico TL, Chen X, JM MC, Julve J, Blanco-Vaca F. Basic mechanisms: structure, function and metabolism of plasma lipoproteins. Clinica E Investigacion En Arteriosclerosis. 2013 ; 25(2):98-103.
  7. Colantonio LD, Bittner V, Reynolds K, Levitan EB, Rosenson RS, Banach M, Kent ST, Derose SF, Zhou H, Safford MM, Muntner P. Association of serum lipids and coronary heart disease in contemporary observational studies. Circulation. 2016;133(3):256-64.
  8. Piepoli MF, Hoes AW, Agewall S, Albus C, Brotons C, Catapano AL, Cooney MT, Corra U, Cosyns B, Deaton C, Graham I. 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. Kardiologia Polska (Polish Heart Journal). 2016;74(9):821-936.
  9. Niiranen TJ, Vasan RS. Epidemiology of cardiovascular disease: recent novel outlooks on risk factors and clinical approaches. Expert review of cardiovascular therapy. 2016;14(7):855-69.
  10. Terada T, Friesen A, Chahal BS, Bell GJ, McCargar LJ, Boulé NG. Feasibility and preliminary efficacy of high intensity interval training in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes research and Clinical practice. 2013;99(2):120-9.
  11. Weston M, Taylor KL, Batterham AM, Hopkins WG. Effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) on fitness in adults: a meta-analysis of controlled and non-controlled trials. Sports medicine. 2014;44(7):1005-17.
  12. Keating SE, Machan EA, O'Connor HT, Gerofi JA, Sainsbury A, Caterson ID, Johnson NA. Continuous exercise but not high intensity interval training improves fat distribution in overweight adults. Journal of obesity. 2014;2014.
  13. Gillen JB, Percival ME, Ludzki A, Tarnopolsky MA, Gibala MJ. Interval training in the fed or fasted state improves body composition and muscle oxidative capacity in overweight women. Obesity. 2013;21(11):2249-55.
  14. Ramos JS, Dalleck LC, Tjonna AE, Beetham KS, Coombes JS. The impact of high-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on vascular function: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2015; 45(5): 679-92.
  15. Iellamo F, Caminiti G, Sposato B, Vitale C, Massaro M, Rosano G, et al. Effect of High-Intensity interval training versus moderate continuous training on 24-h blood pressure profile and insulin resistance in patients with chronic heart failure. Intern Emerg Med. 2014; 9(5): 547-52.
  16. Shidfar F, Jazayeri S, Mousavi SN, Malek M, fateme HOSSEINI A, Khoshpey B. Does supplementation with royal jelly improve oxidative stress and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients?. Iranian journal of public health. 2015;44(6):797.
  17. Sadeghi-Bazargani H, Jafarzadeh H, Fallah M, Hekmat S, Bashiri J, Hosseingolizadeh GH, Soltanmohammadzadeh MS, Mortezazadeh A, Shaker A, Danehzan M, Zohouri A. Risk factor investigation for cardiovascular health through WHO STEPS approach in Ardabil, Iran. Vascular health and risk management. 2011;7:417.
  18. Khammassi M, Ouerghi N, Hadj-Taieb S, Feki M, Thivel D, Bouassida A. Impact of a 12-week high-intensity interval training without caloric restriction on body composition and lipid profile in sedentary healthy overweight/obese youth. Journal of exercise rehabilitation. 2018;14(1):118.
  19. Kannan U, Vasudevan K, Balasubramaniam K, Yerrabelli D, Shanmugavel K, John NA.Effect of exercise intensity on lipid profile in sedentary obese adults.J Clin Diagn Res. 2014; 8 (7): 8-10.
  20. Dianatinasab A, Koroni R, Bahramian M, Bagheri-Hosseinabadi Z, Vaismoradi M, Fararouei M, Amanat S. The effects of aerobic, resistance, and combined exercises on the plasma irisin levels, HOMA-IR, and lipid profiles in women with metabolic syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness. 2020;18(3):168-76.
  21. Asgari M, Asle-Rousta M, Sofiabadi M. Effect of Royal Jelly on Blood Glucose and Lipids in Streptozotocin Induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats. J Arak Uni Med Sci. 2017; 20 (5) :48-56
  22. Saritas N, Yildiz K, Büyükipekci S, Coskun B. Effect of different levels of royal jelly on biochemical parameters of swimmers. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2011;10(52):10718-23.
  23. Viuda-Martos M, Ruiz-Navajas Y, Fernández-López J, Pérez-Álvarez JA. Functional properties of honey, propolis, and royal jelly. Journal of food science .2008; 73(9): R117-24.
  24. Testa R, Bonfigli AR, Genovese S, De Nigris V, Ceriello A. The Possible Role of Flavonoids in the Prevention of Diabetic Complications. Nutrients. 2016; 8(5): 310.
  25. Rauter AP, Martins A, Borges C, Mota-Filipe H, Pinto R, Sepodes B, Justino J. Antihyperglycaemic and protective effects of flavonoids on streptozotocin–induced diabetic rats. Phytotherapy Research 2010; 24(S2): S133-8.
  26. Yoneshiro T, Kaede R, Nagaya K, Aoyama J, Saito M, Okamatsu-Ogura Y, Kimura K, Terao A. Royal jelly ameliorates diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance by promoting brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in .mice. Obesity research & clinical practice. 2018;12(1):127-37.
  • Receive Date: 15 January 2022
  • Revise Date: 20 March 2022
  • Accept Date: 17 April 2022
  • First Publish Date: 18 April 2022