Dietary Supplementation of Clove (Syzygium Aromaticum) Essential Oil Improves Growth Performance, Oxidative indices, and Lipid Profile of Japanese Quails Exposed to Lead

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Food Hygiene and Quality control,Faculty of veterinary medicine, shahrekord university, shahrekord, iran

2 Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahre-kord University, Shahre-kord, Iran

3 c Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of veterinary medicine, Shahre-kord University, Shahre-kord, Iran

4 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of veterinary medicine, Shahre-kord University, Shahre-kord, Iran

5 Nutritional Health Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran



Introduction: The current survey investigated the alleviating effect of dietary clove (Syzygium aromaticum) essential oil (CEO) in comparison with vitamin C (VC), against the adverse effects of Pb on growth performance, serum oxidative indices, and lipid profile in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica), following oral administration. Methods: 480 one-day-old quails were randomly segregated into 8 groups, which fed with the following diets, via 35 days: basal diet (negative control), basal diet + VC (500 mg/kg), basal diet + CEO (450 mg/kg), basal diet + CEO (100 mg/kg), basal diet + VC (500 mg/kg) + Pb (100 mg/l), basal diet + CEO (450 mg/kg) + Pb (100 mg/l), basal diet + CEO (100 mg/kg) + Pb (100 mg/l), and basal diet + Pb (100 mg/l) (positive control). The data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance and Duncan’s post hoc test. Results: Quails exposed to Pb and treated with CEO had reduced oxidative stress as evidenced by lower concentrations of TBARS and CP, higher activities of SOD, GPx, and CAT, and more improved lipid profile, compared to positive control. Moreover, the alleviating effects of CEO were dose-dependent. Conclusion: The CEO (450 mg/kg) was potentially as effective as or even more potent than VC (500 mg/kg) in alleviating the adverse effects of Pb.  


  1. Alagawany M, Abd El-Hack M, Farag M, Elnesr S, El-Kholy M, Saadeldin I, et al. Dietary supplementation of Yucca schidigera extract enhances productive and reproductive performances, blood profile, immune function, and antioxidant status in laying Japanese quails exposed to lead in the diet. Poultry science. 2018;97(9):3126-37.
  2. Farag MR, Alagawany M, Abd El-Hack ME, El-Sayed SA, Ahmed SY, Samak DH. Yucca schidigera extract modulates the lead-induced oxidative damage, nephropathy and altered inflammatory response and glucose homeostasis in Japanese quails. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety. 2018;156:311-21.
  3. Kou H, Ya J, Gao X, Zhao H. The effects of chronic lead exposure on the liver of female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica): Histopathological damages, oxidative stress and AMP-activated protein kinase based lipid metabolism disorder. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety. 2020;190:110055.
  4. Kou H, Fu Y, He Y, Jiang J, Gao X, Zhao H. Chronic lead exposure induces histopathological damage, microbiota dysbiosis and immune disorder in the cecum of female Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica). Ecotoxicology and environmental safety. 2019;183:109588.
  5. Paskova V, Paskerova H, Pikula J, Bandouchova H, Sedlackova J, Hilscherova K. Combined exposure of Japanese quails to cyanotoxins, Newcastle virus and lead: Oxidative stress responses. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety. 2011;74(7):2082-90.
  6. Mutlu SI, Seven I, Arkali G, Birben N, Arslan AS, Aksakal M, et al. Ellagic acid plays an important role in enhancing productive performance and alleviating oxidative stress, apoptosis in laying quail exposed to lead toxicity. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2021;208:111608.
  7. Abdelkhalek NK, Risha E, Mohamed A, Salama MF, Dawood MAJF, immunology s. Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of clove oil against Streptococcus iniae infection in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and its effect on hepatic hepcidin expression. 2020;104:478-88.
  8. Petrovic V, Marcincak S, Popelka P, Simkova J, Martonova M, Buleca J, et al. The effect of supplementation of clove and agrimony or clove and lemon balm on growth performance, antioxidant status and selected indices of lipid profile of broiler chickens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition. 2012;96(6):970-7.
  9. Hussein MM, Abd El-Hack ME, Mahgoub SA, Saadeldin IM, Swelum AA. Effects of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil on quail growth, carcass traits, blood components, meat quality, and intestinal microbiota. Poultry science. 2019;98(1):319-29.
  10. Zhang L, Gu B, Wang Y. Clove essential oil confers antioxidant activity and lifespan extension in C. elegans via the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology. 2021;242:108938.
  11. He Y, Wang L, Li X, Zhao H. The effects of chronic lead exposure on the ovaries of female juvenile Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica): Developmental delay, histopathological alterations, hormone release disruption and gene expression disorder. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2020;205:111338.
  12. Morgan G, Edens F, Thaxton P, Parkhurst C. Toxicity of dietary lead in Japanese quail. Poultry Science. 1975;54(5):1636-42.
  13. Brenes A, Roura E. Essential oils in poultry nutrition: Main effects and modes of action. Animal feed science and technology. 2010;158(1-2):1-14.
  14. Nain S, Smits J. Subchronic lead exposure, immunotoxicology and increased disease resistance in Japanese quail (Corturnix coturnix japonica). Ecotoxicology and environmental safety. 2011;74(4):787-92.
  15. Jurczuk M, Brzóska MM, Moniuszko-Jakoniuk J, Gałażyn-Sidorczuk M, Kulikowska-Karpińska E. Antioxidant enzymes activity and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney of rats exposed to cadmium and ethanol. Food and chemical toxicology. 2004;42(3):429-38.
  16. Levine RL, Garland D, Oliver CN, Amici A, Climent I, Lenz A-G, et al. [49] Determination of carbonyl content in oxidatively modified proteins. Methods in enzymology. 1990;186:464-78.
  17. Sun Y, Oberley LW, Li Y. A simple method for clinical assay of superoxide dismutase. Clinical chemistry. 1988;34(3):497-500.
  18. Goth L. A simple method for determination of serum catalase activity and revision of reference range. Clinica chimica acta. 1991;196(2-3):143-51.
  19. Paglia DE, Valentine WN. Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. The Journal of laboratory and clinical medicine. 1967;70(1):158-69.
  20. Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clinical chemistry. 1972;18(6):499-502.
  21. Zangeneh S, Torki M, Lotfollahian H, Abdolmohammadi AJJoap, nutrition a. Effects of dietary supplemental lysophospholipids and vitamin C on performance, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, thyroid hormones and serum metabolites of broiler chickens reared under thermoneutral and high ambient temperature. 2018;102(6):1521-32.
  22. Zhu Y, Li S, Sun Q, Yang XJA. Effect of in ovo feeding of vitamin C on antioxidation and immune function of broiler chickens. 2019;13(9):1927-33.
  23. Fox MJAotNYAoS. Protective effects of ascorbic acid against toxicity of heavy metals. 1975;258:144-50.
  24. Karamian R, Komaki A, Salehi I, Tahmasebi L, Komaki H, Shahidi S, et al. Vitamin C reverses lead-induced deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity in rats. Brain research bulletin. 2015;116:7-15.
  25. MA Y. Effects of dietary inclusion of plant extract mixture and copper into layer diets on egg yield and quality, yolk cholesterol and fatty acid composition. Kafkas Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi. 2013;19(4).
  26. Yu D, Xu Y, Jiang Q, Xia W. Effects of chitosan coating combined with essential oils on quality and antioxidant enzyme activities of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets stored at 4 C. International Journal of Food Science & Technology. 2017;52(2):404-12.
  27. Erdoğan Z, Erdoğan S, Aksu T, Baytok E. The effects of dietary lead exposure and ascorbic acid on performance, lipid peroxidation status and biochemical parameters of broilers. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. 2005;29(4):1053-9.
  28. Batiha GE-S, Alkazmi LM, Wasef LG, Beshbishy AM, Nadwa EH, Rashwan EK. Syzygium aromaticum L.(Myrtaceae): Traditional uses, bioactive chemical constituents, pharmacological and toxicological activities. Biomolecules. 2020;10(2).
  29. Ibitoye E, Olorede B, Agaie B, Ahmed A, Jimoh A. Effects of dietary lead exposure and graded levels of ascorbic acid supplementation on performance and haematology of broiler chickens. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences. 2011;9(2):1-6.
  30. Ebrahimi R, Faseleh Jahromi M, Liang JB, Soleimani Farjam A, Shokryazdan P, Idrus Z. Effect of dietary lead on intestinal nutrient transporters mRNA expression in broiler chickens. BioMed research international. 2015;2015.
  31. Vodela J, Renden J, Lenz S, McElhenney W, Kemppainen B. Drinking water contaminants (arsenic, cadmium, lead, benzene, and trichloroethylene). 1. Interaction of contaminants with nutritional status on general performance and immune function in broiler chickens. Poultry Science. 1997;76(11):1474-92.
  32. Chi Q, Liu T, Sun Z, Tan S, Li S, Li S. Involvement of mitochondrial pathway in environmental metal pollutant lead-induced apoptosis of chicken liver: perspectives from oxidative stress and energy metabolism. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2017;24(36):28121-31.
  33. Cheng Y, Chen Y, Wen C, Wang W, Wang A, Zhou Y. Evaluation of dietary palygorskite supplementation on growth performance, mineral accumulations, antioxidant capacities, and meat quality of broilers fed lead-contaminated diet. Biological trace element research. 2018;181(2):314-22.
  34. Kumar MR, Reddy AG, Anjaneyulu Y, Reddy GD. Oxidative stress induced by lead and antioxidant potential of certain adaptogens in poultry. Toxicology international. 2010;17(2):45.
  35. Hamidipour F, Pourkhabbaz H, Banaee M, Javanmardi S. Bioaccumulation of lead in the tissues of Japanese quails and its effects on blood biochemical factors. Iranian Journal of Toxicology. 2016;10(2):13-21.
  36. Najafi P, Torki M. Performance, Blood Metabolites and Immunocompetaence of Broiler. J Anim Vet Adv. 2010;9:1164-8.
  37. Lee K-W, Everts H, Kappert H, Frehner M, Losa R, Beynen A. Effects of dietary essential oil components on growth performance, digestive enzymes and lipid metabolism in female broiler chickens. British poultry science. 2003;44(3):450-7.


  • Receive Date: 01 August 2022
  • Revise Date: 05 September 2022
  • Accept Date: 12 September 2022
  • First Publish Date: 12 September 2022