Impact of Ramadan Fasting on Energy Intake and Anthropometry of Type 2 Diabetics-Study in Two Regions of the Central Highlands and Southeastern Algeria

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Institute of Nutrition, Food and Agro-Food Technologies (INATAA), University of Brother`s Mentouri Constantine (UFMC), Algeria

2 Service of Internal Medicine, Hospital University, Constantine, Algeria


Introduction:During the month of Ramadan, muslims change their lifestyle. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on the energy intake and anthropometry of type 2 diabetics. Methods:Epidemiological study by questionnaire were collected before (T0), during (T1) and after (T3) Ramadan 2013. The data were collected during medical consultations in sanitary establishments in two regions of the central highlands (Boussaâda) and the south-east of Algeria (Djamaâ). The survey card concerned a food recording and anthropometry repeated during the 3 time periods mentioned before. Results:The study concerned 476 diabetics (255 women, 221 men) with the mean age of 54.9±4.7 years old. 66.4% of diabetics of Boussaâda and 61.8% of Djamaâ followed nutritional education sessions preparing for fasting (p˃0.05). The number of fasting days during the month of Ramadan is 24.0±1.7days. By comparing both of the regions, no significant difference was observed in the energy intake distribution and in macronutriments of the diabetics (p>0.05). By comparing the 3 periods, the diabetics of Boussaâda had an energy intake significantly increased at T1 (p=0.000). In Djamaâ, the energy intake decreased from T0 to T2 (p=0.000). The energy distribution of macronutrients remained stable (p>0.05) between the three periods. Body mass index, waist circumference and the waist-to-hip ratio were significantly decreased from T0 to T2 (p<0.05). Conclusion:Ramadan had an influence on the energy intake and anthropometry of diabetics. Food consumed during the fast-breaking meal is characterized by its richness in carbohydrates and lipids. Nutritional education sessions provide the diabetic patients deciding to fast with a chance for properly managing their condition.


  1. Ababou M, Ababou R, El Maliki A. Le jeûne du Ramadan au Maroc: un dilemme pour les patients diabétiques et les soignants. Sci Soc Santé. 2008; 26(2):79-104.
  2. Sebbani M, El-Ansari N, EL-Mghariet G, Amine M. Food intake during the month of Ramadan in Moroccan patients with type 2 diabetes. East Mediterr Health J. 2013; 19(3):276-81.
  3. Ismail S, Shamsuddin K, Latiff KA, Saad HA, Majid LA, Othman FM. Voluntary fasting to control post-Ramadan weight gain among overweight and obese women. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2015; 15(1):98-104.
  4. Ciqual T. French food composition table. French Agency for Food, Environnemental and Occu-pationnel health and safety; Available at: URL:; 2012.
  5. Souci SW, Fachmann W, Kraut H. Food composition and nutrition tables. 7th ed. London: Medpham Scientific Publishers stuttgart; 2008.
  6. World Health Organization. Measuring obesity: classification and description of anthropometric data. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1989.
  7. Federation ID. IDF diabetes atlas. 7th ed. Brussels: International Diabetes Federation; 2015. P. 142.
  8. Smaoui N. Diabète et Ramadan: Représentations, croyances et pratiques de santé des patients et des soignants. Evaluation d’un programme d’éducation thérapeutique adapte. [Master Thesis]. Riverside, CA: University Honors Peer Network; 2011. P. 1-224.
  9. Bravis V, Hui E, Salih S, Mehar S, Hassanein M, Devendra D. Ramadan Education and Awareness in Diabetes (READ) programme for Muslims with type 2 diabetes who fast during Ramadan. Diabet Med. 2010; 27(3):327-31.
  10. Khaled MB, Menadi N, Boumediene A, Ktob A, Halfaoui S, Boukhatmi F. Rôle de l’éducation nutritionnelle dans la prise en charge du diabétique de type 2 pendant le Ramadan. Diabetes Metab. 2013; 39(1):1262-3.
  11. Martin A. The “apports nutritionnels conseillés (ANC)” for the French population. Reprod Nutr. Dev. 2001; 41(2):119-28.
  12. Hui E, Bravis V, Hassanein M, Hanif W, Malik R, Chowdhury TA, et al. Management of people with diabetes wanting to fast during Ramadan. BMJ. 2010; 340:1407-11.
  13. Cano N, Barnoud D, Schneider SM, Vasson MP, Hasselmann M, Leverve X. Traité de nutrition artificielle de l'adulte. 3rd ed. Paris: Springer Science & Business Media; 2006. P. 650-2.
  14. Benaji B, Mounib N, Roky R, Aadil N, Houti IE, Moussamih S, et al. Diabetes and Ramadan: review of the literature. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2006; 73(2):117-25.
  15. Bouguerra R, Belkadhi A, Jabrane J, Hamzaoui J, Maâtki C, Ben Rayana MC, et al. Metabolic effects of Ramadan fasting on type 2 diabetes. East Mediterr Health J. 2003; 9(5-6):1099-108.
  16. Sadiya A, Ahmed S, Siddieg HH, Babas IJ, Carlsson M. Effect of Ramadan fasting on metabolic markers, body composition, and dietary intake in Emiratis of Ajman (UAE) with metabolic syndrome. Diabetes, Metab Syndr Obes. 2011; 4:409-16.
  17. Ouhdouch F, Adarmouch L, Errajraji A, Amine M, El Ansari N. Absence d’effets délétères du jeûne du Ramadan sur l’équilibre glycémique chez des patients diabétiques: rôle des consultations de préparation au jeûne, épidémiologie, coûts et organisation des soins. Méd Maladies Métab. 2011; 5(4):444-52.
  18. Patel P, Mirakhur A, Abo El-Magd KM,Abo El-MattyAN, Al-Ghafri D. Type 2 Diabetes and its characteristics during Ramadan in Dhahira region Oman. Oman Med J. 2007; 22(3):16-23.
  19. Gharbi M, Akrout M, Zouari B. Food intake during and outside Ramadan. East Mediterr Health J. 2003; 9(1-2):131-40.
  20. Marquet A. Accompagnement des patients diabétiques au cours du jeune du ramadan: implication et besoins des équipes officinales. [Master Thesis]. Grenoble, France: University of Joseph Fourier; 2013. P. 1-132.
  21. World Health Organization. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2000.
  22. Norouzy A, Salehi M, Philippou E, Arabi H, Shiva F, Mehrnoosh S, et al. Effect of fasting in Ramadan on body composition and nutritional intake: a prospective study. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2013; 26(Suppl 1):97-104.