Effect of Novel Zein Coating Combined with Different Antioxidants (Thymol and Carvacrol) on the Aflatoxin Production of Peanut

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2 2Department of Food Hygiene and Aquaculture, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

3 Department of Food Hygiene and Aquaculture, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

4 3Department of Clinical Sciences. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Ferdowsi University Of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

5 department of nutrition sciences, varastegan institute for medical sciences, Mashhad, Iran


Introduction: Aflatoxin contamination of agricultural crops leads to health hazards and detrimental to the economy. Despite enhanced processing, handling and storage, it remains an issue in the peanut industry. An effort was made to investigate the efficacy of corn zein coating combined with thymol and carvacrol as the edible coating may extend aflatoxinproduction. Methods: Analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2 and total were performed for 11 treatments on coated and uncoated peanuts stored at room temperature for 90 days. Treatments were included zein, thymol (500, 1000, 1500 ppm), carvacrol (5000, 10000, 15000 ppm), incorporating thymol and carvacrol at three different concentrations and control. Results: Significant differences between coated and uncoated treatments were observed (p<0.05). The mean of aflatoxins B1, B2 and total in treatments with the highest concentration of antioxidant had increased between baseline and 90th day. While in other treatments the trend was decreasing compared to the control. Conclusion: Coating containing zein showed the best results in terms of preventing aflatoxin formation. So it can be recommended as a suitable coating for peanut, promoting their health benefits.


1.         Atarés L, Pérez-Masiá R, Chiralt A. The role of some antioxidants in the HPMC film properties and lipid protection in coated toasted almonds. Journal of Food Engineering. 2011;104(4):649-56.
2.         Reddy TY, Reddy VR, Anbumozhi V. Physiological responses of groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) to drought stress and its amelioration: a critical review. Plant Growth Regulation. 2003;41(1):75-88.
3.         Tango JS. Influence of environmental conditions of the physical, microbiological and chemical characteristics of peanut of Tatu variety(Arachis hypogaea L.): Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge.; 1979.
4.         Aflatoxins in Peanuts.  Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2002. p. 263-71.
5.         Proctor AD, Ahmedna * M, Kumar JV, Goktepe I. Degradation of aflatoxins in peanut kernels/flour by gaseous ozonation and mild heat treatment. Food Additives & Contaminants. 2004;21(8):786-93.
6.         Beverlya RL, Janes ME, Prinyawiwatkula W, No HK. Edible chitosan films on ready-to-eat roast beef for the control of Listeria monocytogenes. Food Microbiology. 2008;25(3):534-7.
7.         Baldwin EA, Nisperos‐Carriedo MO, Baker RA. Use of edible coatings to preserve quality of lightly (and slightly) processed products. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 1995;35(6):509-24.
8.         Nepote V, Mestrallet MG, Ryan L, Conci S, Grosso NR. Sensorial and chemical changes in honey roasted peanuts and roasted peanuts stored under different temperatures. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2006;86(7):1057-63.
10.       Quezada-Gallo J-A. Delivery of food additives and antimicrobials using edible films and coatings.  Edible Films and Coatings for Food Applications: Springer; 2009. p. 315-33.
11.       Shukla R, Cheryan M. Zein: the industrial protein from corn. Industrial crops and products. 2001;13(3):171-92.
12.       Park HJ, Chinnan MS. Gas and water vapor barrier properties of edible films from protein and cellulosic materials. Journal of food engineering. 1995;25(4):497-507.
13.       Baldwin EA, Hagenmaier R, Bai J. Edible coatings and films to improve food quality: CRC Press; 2011.
14.       Bakkali F, Averbeck S, Averbeck D, Idaomar M. Biological effects of essential oils–a review. Food and chemical toxicology. 2008;46(2):446-75.
15.       López M, Pascual-Villalobos M. Mode of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by monoterpenoids and implications for pest control. Industrial Crops and Products. 2010;31(2):284-8.
16.       Al‐Bandak G, Oreopoulou V. Antioxidant properties and composition of Majorana syriaca extracts. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 2007;109(3):247-55.
17.       Didry N, Dubreuil L, Pinkas M. Activity of thymol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on oral bacteria. Pharmaceutica Acta Helvetiae. 1994;69(1):25-8.
18.       Veldhuizen EJ, Tjeerdsma-van Bokhoven JL, Zweijtzer C, Burt SA, Haagsman HP. Structural requirements for the antimicrobial activity of carvacrol. Journal of agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2006;54(5):1874-9.
19.       Youdim KA, Deans SG. Effect of thyme oil and thymol dietary supplementation on the antioxidant status and fatty acid composition of the ageing rat brain. British Journal of Nutrition. 2000;83(1):87-93.
20.       Halliwell B, Aeschbach R, Löliger J, Aruoma O. The characterization of antioxidants. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 1995;33(7):601-17.
21.       Scramin JA, de Britto D, Forato LA, Bernardes‐Filho R, Colnago LA, Assis OB. Characterisation of zein–oleic acid films and applications in fruit coating. International journal of food science & technology. 2011;46(10):2145-52.
22.       López-Mata MA, Ruiz-Cruz S, Silva-Beltrán NP, Ornelas-Paz JdJ, Zamudio-Flores PB, Burruel-Ibarra SE. Physicochemical, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of chitosan films incorporated with carvacrol. Molecules. 2013;18(11):13735-53.
23.       Gaithersburg M. Official methods of analysis of AOAC international. AOAC INTERNATIONAL, USA, official method pp. 2000;982.
24.       Afsah-Hejri L, Jinap S, Arzandeh S, Mirhosseini H. Optimization of HPLC conditions for quantitative analysis of aflatoxins in contaminated peanut. Food Control. 2011;22(3-4):381-8.
25.       Tihminlioglu F, Atik İD, Özen B. Water vapor and oxygen-barrier performance of corn–zein coated polypropylene films. Journal of Food Engineering. 2010;96(3):342-7.
26.       Tihminlioglu F, Atik İD, Özen B. Effect of corn‐zein coating on the mechanical properties of polypropylene packaging films. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2011;119(1):235-41.
27.       Carlin F, Gontard N, Reich M, Nguyen‐The C. Utilization of zein coating and sorbic acid to reduce Listeria monocytogenes growth on cooked sweet corn. Journal of food science. 2001;66(9):1385-9.
28.       Mchugh TH, Weller CL, Krochta JM. Edible coatings and films based on proteins. Edible coatings and films to improve food quality. 1994:201.
29.       LIN LS, WANG BJ, WENG YM. Quality preservation of commercial fish balls with antimicrobial zein coatings. Journal of Food Quality. 2011;34(2):81-7.
30.       Rasooli I, Abyaneh MR. Inhibitory effects of Thyme oils on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus. Food control. 2004;15(6):479-83.
  • Receive Date: 18 August 2018
  • Revise Date: 24 September 2018
  • Accept Date: 10 October 2018
  • First Publish Date: 10 October 2018