Development of the pH Sensitive Indicator Label for Real-time Monitoring of Chicken Freshness

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Food Hygiene and Safety, Faculty of Public Health, International Campus, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

2 Zoonotic Diseases Research Center, Department of Food Hygiene and Safety, Faculty of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

3 Medical biotechnology Research Center, Ashkezar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ashkezar, Yazd, Iran.

4 Department of Advanced Medical Sciences and Technologies, School of Paramedicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

5 Department of Food Hygiene and Safety, Faculty of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.


Intelligent packaging is a type of packaging which could control the environment around the food and inform consumers about food condition. The objective of present research was to design a simple pH-sensitive label in chicken package which show the spoilage by changing its color.
The Bromocresol green, a pH-sensitive color indicator, has been used to detect chicken spoilage and attached to the inner side of the package. The analysis including chemical (pH and TVBN), microbial and sensory analysis were done at the intervals of 0, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 10 days storage at 4 °C.
The TVB-N was 19 mg/100g in the first day and measured 29 mg/100 g on the 8th day and 46 mg/100g of on the last day, respectively. According to achieved results, the changes of BCG color due to chicken spoilage were detectable by naked eye. The bacterial count was about 6.62 Log10CFU/g. On the last day, the indicator’s color became blue and the total count reached about 7.20 Log10CFU/g. There was a significant relationship between Total Volatile Nitrogen Base (TVBN), pH, microbial and sensory analysis in all studied samples with the changes in indicator’s color during storage. Due to increase in TVBN during storage, the Bromocresol Green (BCG) indicator’s color changed from yellow to blue. Thus, the BCG indicator can be employed as an inexpensive and simple label to show the freshness of chicken meat.


1.   Kuswandi B, Restyana A, Abdullah A, Heng LY, Ahmad M. A novel colorimetric food package label for fish spoilage based on polyaniline film. Food Control. 2012;25(1):184-9.
2.   Rukchon C, Nopwinyuwong A, Trevanich S, Jinkarn T, Suppakul P. Development of a food spoilage indicator for monitoring freshness of skinless chicken breast. Talanta. 2014;130:547-54.
3.   Chen Q, Hui Z, Zhao J, Ouyang Q. Evaluation of chicken freshness using a low-cost colorimetric sensor array with AdaBoost–OLDA classification algorithm. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 2014;57(2):502-7.
4.   Park YW, Kim SM, Lee JY, Jang W. Application of biosensors in smart packaging. Molecular & Cellular Toxicology. 2015;11(3):277-85.
5.   Pacquit A, Lau KT, McLaughlin H, Frisby J, Quilty B, Diamond D. Development of a volatile amine sensor for the monitoring of fish spoilage. Talanta. 2006;69(2):515-20.
6.   Olaniyi Od. Food packaging indicators and sensors. 2015.
7.   Restuccia D, Spizzirri UG, Parisi OI, Cirillo G, Curcio M, Iemma F, et al. New EU regulation aspects and global market of active and intelligent packaging for food industry applications. Food Control. 2010;21(11):1425-35.
8.   Poyatos-Racionero E, Ros-Lis JV, Vivancos J-L, Martínez-Máñez R. Recent advances on intelligent packaging as tools to reduce food waste. Journal of cleaner production. 2018;172:3398-409.
9.   Payan M, Hamedi M. Application of active packaging in foods - A review. Iranian journal of food science and technology. 2013;10(38):-.
10.         Niknam E, Javanmard M. Determination of Spoilage development and shelf life in Poultry meat using color Indicators in chill condition. Innovative Food Technologies. 2015;2(2):3-14.
11.         Kuswandi B, Nurfawaidi A. On-package dual sensors label based on pH indicators for real-time monitoring of beef freshness. Food Control. 2017;82:91-100.
12.         Shukla V, Kandeepan G, Vishnuraj MR. Development of On-Package Indicator Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Buffalo Meat Quality During Refrigeration Storage. Food Analytical Methods. 2015;8(6):1591-7.
13.         Mo R, Quan Q, Li T, Yuan Q, Su T, Yan X, et al. An Intelligent Label for Freshness of Fish Based on a Porous Anodic Aluminum Membrane and Bromocresol Green. ChemistrySelect. 2017;2(28):8779-84.
14.         King DW, Kester DR. Determination of seawater pH from 1.5 to 8.5 using colorimetric indicators. Marine Chemistry. 1989;26(1):5-20.
15.         Chun H-N, Kim B, Shin H-S. Evaluation of a freshness indicator for quality of fish products during storage. Food Science and Biotechnology. 2014;23(5):1719-25.
16.         Chan ST, Yao MW, Wong Y, Wong T, Mok C, Sin DW. Evaluation of chemical indicators for monitoring freshness of food and determination of volatile amines in fish by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. European Food Research and Technology. 2006;224(1):67-74.
17.         Mirshekari S, Safari R, Adel M, Motalebi Moghanjoghi A, Khalili E, Bonyadian M. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of nisin Z and sodium benzoate in vacuum packed Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii) fillet stored at 4° C. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences. 2016;15(2):789-801.
18.         Shukla V, Kandeepan G, Vishnuraj M. Development of on package indicator sensor for real-time monitoring of meat quality. Veterinary world. 2015;8(3):393.
19.         Smolander M, Hurme E, Latva-Kala K, Luoma T, Alakomi H-L, Ahvenainen R. Myoglobin-based indicators for the evaluation of freshness of unmarinated broiler cuts. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies. 2002;3(3):279-88.
20.         Lee K, Baek S, Kim D, Seo J. A freshness indicator for monitoring chicken-breast spoilage using a Tyvek® sheet and RGB color analysis. Food Packaging and Shelf Life. 2019;19:40-6.
21.         Salinas Y, Ros-Lis JV, Vivancos J-L, Martínez-Máñez R, Marcos MD, Aucejo S, et al. Monitoring of chicken meat freshness by means of a colorimetric sensor array. Analyst. 2012;137(16):3635-43.
22.         Morsy MK, Zor K, Kostesha N, Alstrøm TS, Heiskanen A, El-Tanahi H, et al. Development and validation of a colorimetric sensor array for fish spoilage monitoring. Food Control. 2016;60:346-52.
23.         Kuswandi B, Oktaviana R, Abdullah A, Heng LY. A Novel On‐Package Sticker Sensor Based on Methyl Red for Real‐Time Monitoring of Broiler Chicken Cut Freshness. Packaging Technology and Science. 2014;27(1):69-81.
24.         Soni A, Mendiratta SK, Talukder S, Kumar RR, Chand S, Jaiswal RK. Development of Colorimetric On-package Indicator for Monitoring of Chicken Meat Freshness during Refrigerated Storage (4±1° C). Journal of Animal Research. 2018;8(5):847.
25.         Kim D, Lee S, Lee K, Baek S, Seo J. Development of a pH indicator composed of high moisture-absorbing materials for real-time monitoring of chicken breast freshness. Food science and biotechnology. 2017;26(1):37-42.
26.         Pacquit A, Frisby J, Diamond D, Lau KT, Farrell A, Quilty B, et al. Development of a smart packaging for the monitoring of fish spoilage. Food Chemistry. 2007;102(2):466-70.
27.         Mohebi E, Marquez L. Intelligent packaging in meat industry: An overview of existing solutions. Journal of food science and technology. 2015;52(7):3947-64.
  • Receive Date: 04 September 2019
  • Revise Date: 30 October 2019
  • Accept Date: 13 November 2019
  • First Publish Date: 13 November 2019