Determination of pH, Salt, Sodium and Potassium Content in the Traditional Bread in western Iran

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Food and Drug Department, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

2 Hajar Hospital, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

3 Medical School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.


Introduction: Bread is widely used worldwide and provides a significant share of the energy, protein, minerals and vitamins needed by the body. The aim of this study was to determine the pH, salt, sodium and potassium content of traditional breads in Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari province.Methods: In this study, 451 traditional bread samples of different types randomly collected by baker’s health inspectors across Chaharmahal V Bakhtiari Province in 2016. The pH, salt, sodium and potassium content of the bread samples were measured by pH metric, potentiometric and flame photometric methods at the Food Control Laboratory of Shahrekourd University of Medical Sciences.Results: In this study, the average pH, salt, sodium and potassium content of bread samples were 5.85, 1.95%, 765 and 108 mg /100g, respectively. At least 7.7% of the bread samples were positive for sodium bicarbonate use and 54% were more than the maximum allowed for salt content. In this study, the ratio of sodium to potassium was 12.07.Conclusion: This study showed that salt use was high in bread production and a significant portion of the bread samples were positive for sodium bicarbonate use. Continuing this situation is a major threat to the health of the community. Therefore, strong control and supervision over the bread production units are essential.


  1. Abdollahi M, Doust-Mohammadian A, Abtahi M, Esmaeili M, HoushiarradA.Validity of Telephone versus Face-to-Face Interviews in the Assessment of Bread Consumption Pattern. J Community Health 2014;1(1):45- 53.
  2. DiMuzio DT. Bread Baking: An Artisan's Perspective. John Wiley & Sons; 2009 Feb 24.
  3. Iranian National Standardization Organization(INSO). Traditional breads Specifications and test methods. (3rd.Revisio). Theran: Iranian National Standardization Organization;2014.
  4. Khmyrchy R, . Tavana, Esmaili,. Akbari, Arash. Baking soda and salt content of bread in a bakeryin Sabzevar. J Sabzevar Univ Med Sci. 2010;17(2):135-42.
  5. Kathleen M, . Escott-Stump, Sylvia. Krause's Food & Nutrition Therapy . Mandy L. Corrigan. WaterE, lectrolyteas, and Acid-Basde balance.Elsevier Inc.2017;85-96.
  6. World Health Organization (WHO). Guideline: Potassium intake for adults and children. Geneva, World Health Organization (WHO), 2012.
  7. Aalipour F. Determine the prevalence contamination foods to synthetic colors with thin layer chromatography in Shahrekourd. J Shahrekord Univ Med Sci. 2016 Feb 15;17(6):103-12.
  8.  Aalipour HF, Mahdavi HF, Aalipour HE. Determination of Peroxide Number of Oils Extracted from Zolbia and Okra in the holy month of RamadanJSKUMS. 2015;17(5):74-82.
  9. Fulgoni VL, Agarwal S, Spence L, Samuel P. Sodium intake in US ethnic subgroups and potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology: NHANES Dietary Modeling. Nutr J. 2014 Dec 1;13(1):120.
  10. Quilez J, Salas-Salvado J. Salt in bread in Europe: potential benefits of reduction. Nutr Rev. 2012 Nov 1;70(11):666-78.
  11. Public Health England(PHE). Salt Reduction Targets for 2017. Public Health England;March 2017.
  12. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Monitoring of Sodium and Potassium in Processed Foods. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC)method 969.23. 18th Edition 2005.
  13. Castanheira I, Figueiredo C, André C, Coelho I, Silva AT, Santiago S, et al. Sampling of bread for added sodium as determined by flame photometry. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009; 621-28.
  14. Moshtagi Mogadam M, Amini F, Mardani J. Research of the quality of bread and removing of bicarbonate of soda and reduction of wastage of bread in Charmahal & BaKhtiari 2003-2004. In7th national congress of environmental health 2004.
  15. Rezaei-Mofrad MR, Rangraz-Jeddi F, Moosavi GA. Amount of baking soda and salt in bakeries of Mehrdasht city (Najafabad) during 2009-10. Feyz Journal of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. 2011;15(3):267-73.
  16. Rezaiimofrad M. R, Jeddi F.R, Kashani H, Azarbad Z, Assarian A. Study of Sodium bicarbonate and Sodium chloride in Bakeries of Isfahan-Iran. RepOpinion 2016;8(9):1-6.
  17. Maghroun M, Sajjadi F, Sarhanghpour MR, Nouri F, Shriatifar M, Mohammadifard N, et al. Salt and Sodium Content in Iranian Breads. Hakim. 2015;18(3):209-16.
  18. Zabihollahi T, Goftari S, Garibi F, Naderi K, Korani A, Danesh O, et al. Investigation of the amount of sodium bicarbonate and salt in different types of bread in the bakeries of Kurdistan Province from 2008 to 2010. Sci J Kurdistan Univ Med Sci. 2013;18(3):39-46.
  19. Zibaeenezhad M, Hooshangi M, Abtahi A, Heydari S.A Study of Salt Content in Different Bread Consumed in Shiraz City in Spring/Summer 2009. Iran Cardiovasc Res J. 2010;4(1):17-21.
  20. Maalouf J, Cogswell ME, Yuan K, Martin C, Gillespie C, Ahuja JK, Pehrsson P, Merritt R. Sodium content of foods contributing to sodium intake: comparison between selected foods from the CDC Packaged Food Database and the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Procedia food science. 2015;4:114.
  21. Brinsden HC, He FJ, Jenner KH, MacGregor GA. Surveys of the salt content in UK bread: progress made and further reductions possible. BMJ open. 2013 Jun 1;3(6).
  22. Pastell1 H, Jõeleht A, Kielland E, Reykdal O, Ohrvik V, sterholtDalaneJ. Levels of iodine, sodium and dietary fibre in selected Nordic and Estonian foods.Food & Nutrition Research 2016, 60:30961, P 422.
  23. Mirzaei M SM, Namayandeh M, GharahiGhehi N. Sodium and Potassium Intake of Urban Dwellers: Nothing Changed in Yazd, Iran. J Health Popul Nutr. 2014;32(1):111-7.
  24. Hoppu U, Hopia A, Pohjanheimo T, Rotola-Pukkila M, Mäkinen S, Pihlanto A, Sandell M. Effect of salt reduction on consumer acceptance and sensory quality of food. Foods. 2017 Dec;6(12):103.