High-Intensity Interval Training Effects with Genistein on Serum Osteocalcin and Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Female Elderly Rats

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Sport Sciences, Shiraz University٫ Iran.


Introduction: Exercise and nutrition can be two factors influencing bone metabolism in old age. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with genistein (Ge) on serum levels ofosteocalcin (OCN) and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) in female elderly rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 elderly female rats with a mean age of 18- 24 months and mean weight of 220.15 ± 15.28 g were divided into five groups of eight rats including 1) control (C), 2) sham (Sh), 3) HIIT, 4) HIIT+Ge, and 5) Ge. During eight weeks, groups 3 and 4 performed HIIT for three sessions per week with an intensity of 90- 95% of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) in high-intensity intervals and 40- 45% of VO2max in low-intensity intervals as well as groups 4 and 5 received 60 mg/kg/day Ge peritoneally. OCN and BALP were measured by the ELISA method. Results: HIIT significantly increased BALP (P=0.001) and OCN (P=0.04); Ge and HIIT + Ge significantly increased BALP (P=0.001); although Ge had a more favorable effect on increasing BALP compared to HIIT (P=0.001) HIIT had a more favorable effect on increasing OCN compare to Ge (P=0.008). Conclusion: Although HIIT simultaneously with Ge consumption can increase serum BALP levels in female elderly rats the effects of HIIT and Ge alone on BALP and OCN are different from each other.


1. Dubnov-Raz G, Pines A, Berry EM. Diet and lifestyle in managing postmenopausal obesity. Climacteric. 2007;10(sup2):38–41.
2. Li L, Chen X, Lv S, Dong M, Zhang L, Tu J, et al. Influence of exercise on bone remodeling-related hormones and cytokines in ovariectomized rats: a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. PLoS One. 2014;9(11):e112845.
3. Knight DC, Eden JA. Phytoestrogens—a short review. Maturitas. 1995;22(3):167–75.
4. Bonnet N, Pierroz DD, Ferrari SL. Adrenergic control of bone remodeling and its implications for the treatment of osteoporosis. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2008;8(2):94–104.
5. Miao Q, Li J-G, Miao S, Hu N, Zhang J, Zhang S, et al. The bone-protective effect of genistein in the animal model of bilateral ovariectomy: roles of phytoestrogens and PTH/PTHR1 against post-menopausal osteoporosis. Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13(1):56–70.
6. Humayun Fard H, Hosseini SA, Azarbayjani MA, Nikbakht M. The Effect of Interval Training with Selenium Consumption on Gene Expression of Caspase-3 and Cyclin-D in Liver Tissue of Cadmium-Exposed Rats. Jundishapur J Heal Sci. 11(2).
7. Moradi A, Hosseini SA, Nikbakht M. Anti-apoptotic Effects of Interval and Continued Training and Crocin on the Muscle Tissue of the Rats with Type II Diabetes Induced by a High-fat Diet. J Nutr Fast Health. 2019;7(3):130–7.
8. Moreira LD, Longo de Oliveira  M, Lirani-Galvão AP, Marin-Mio R V. Nosasco dos Santos R, et al. Physical exercise and osteoporosis: effects of different types of exercises on bone and physical function of postmenopausal women. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(5):514–22.
9. Maïmoun L, Sultan C. Effects of physical activity on bone remodeling. Metabolism. 2011;60(3):373–88.
10. Thurner PJ, Chen CG, Ionova-Martin S, Sun L, Harman A, Porter A, et al. Osteopontin deficiency increases bone fragility but preserves bone mass. Bone. 2010;46(6):1564–73.
11. He Y-B, Liu S-Y, Deng S-Y, Kuang L-P, Xu S-Y, Li Z, et al. Mechanical stretch promotes the osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells induced by erythropoietin. Stem Cells Int. 2019;2019.
12. GardashiAfousi A, Khashayar P, Gaeini A, Choubineh S, Fallahi AS. Effect high intensity interval training on hormonal factors influence on bone metabolism. J Med Scie Razi. 2015;22(130):31–7.
13. Lin C-F, Huang T, Tu K-C, Lin LL, Tu Y-H, Yang R-S. Acute effects of plyometric jumping and intermittent running on serum bone markers in young males. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112(4):1475–84.
14. Kitareewan W, Boonhong J, Janchai S, Aksaranugraha S. Effects of the treadmill walking exercise on the biochemical bone markers. J Med Assoc Thailand= Chotmaihet thangphaet. 2011;94:S10-6.
15. Chi XX, Chu XL, Zhang T, Cao LK. Effect of genistein on the gene expressions of androgen generating key enzymes StAR, P450scc and CYP19 in rat ovary. Pol J Vet Sci. 2019;279–86.
16. Li F-H, Sun L, Zhu M, Li T, Gao H-E, Wu D-S, et al. Beneficial alterations in body composition, physical performance, oxidative stress, inflammatory markers, and adipocytokines induced by long-term high-intensity interval training in an aged rat model. Exp Gerontol. 2018;113:150–62.
17. Tobeiha M, Moghadasian MH, Amin N, Jafarnejad S. RANKL/RANK/OPG Pathway: A Mechanism Involved in Exercise-Induced Bone Remodeling. Biomed Res Int. 2020;2020.
18. Gombos GC, Bajsz V, Pék E, Schmidt B, Sió E, Molics B, et al. Direct effects of physical training on markers of bone metabolism and serum sclerostin concentrations in older adults with low bone mass. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2016;17(1):254.
19. Haryono IR, Tulaar A, Sudoyo H, Purba A, Abdullah M, Jusman SW, et al. Comparison of the effects of walking and bench-step exercise on osteocalcin and ctx-1 in post-menopausal women with osteopenia. J Musculoskelet Res. 2017;20(02):1750012.
20. Chahla SE, Frohnert BI, Thomas W, Kelly AS, Nathan BM, Polgreen LE. Higher daily physical activity is associated with higher osteocalcin levels in adolescents. Prev Med reports. 2015;2:568–71.
21. Tartibian B, Sheikhlou Z, Malandish A, Rahmati Yamchi M, AfsarGarebag R. Effect of moderate-intensity aerobic training on alkaline phosphatase gene expression and serum markers of bone turnover in sedentary postmenopausal women. Tehran Univ Med J. 2017;74(10):723–34.
22. Khorshidi D, Matinhomaee H, Azarbayjani MA, HOSSEIN NA. Effect of one period of aerobic exercise on serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin in patients with type 2 diabetes. 2012;
23. George KS, Muñoz J, Akhavan NS, Foley EM, Siebert SC, Tenenbaum G, et al. Is soy protein effective in reducing cholesterol and improving bone health? Food Funct. 2020;11(1):544–51.
24. Cepeda SB, Sandoval MJ, Crescitelli MC, Rauschemberger MB, Massheimer VL. The isoflavone genistein enhances osteoblastogenesis: Signaling pathways involved. J Physiol Biochem. 2020;1–12.
25. Zhang Y, Zhou L-P, Li X-L, Zhao Y-J, Ho M-X, Qiu Z-C, et al. 8-Prenylgenistein, a prenylated genistein derivative, exerted tissue selective osteoprotective effects in ovariectomized mice. Oncotarget. 2018;9(36):24221.
26. Gennari C, Agnusdei D, Crepaldi G, Isaia G, Mazzuoli G, Ortolani S, et al. Effect of ipriflavone—a synthetic derivative of natural isoflavones—on bone mass loss in the early years after menopause. Menopause. 1998;5(1):9–15.
27. Ebrahimi M, Yecta Z. Effect of soya protein supplementation on menopausal symptoms. Hakim Res J. 2009;11(4):16–20.
28. Xu Z, Wang H, Shi Y, Shen Q, Tsamlag L, Wang Z, et al. Impact of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K, oestrogen, isoflavone and exercise on bone mineral density for osteoporosis prevention in postmenopausal women: a network meta-analysis. Br J Nutr. 2020;123(1):84–103.
29. Hellings A, Buchan L, Castro M, St. Aubin CR, Fisher AL, Al-Nakkash L, et al. Bone Strength Is Improved with Genistein Treatment in Mice with Diet-Induced Obesity. Curr Dev Nutr. 2019;3(11):nzz121.