The Occurrence and Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Vegetables, Fruits, Tea Samples Marketed Iran: A Systematic Review

Document Type : Review Article


Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.


Cultivation of vegetables and fruits is a main food sources for human population. However, these products can be polluted by different types of contaminates like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Thus, this systematic review served as a comprehensive report on the occurrence, levels, and health risk effects of PAHs in vegetables and fruits samples marketed in Iran. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) were used to develop this systematic review, and four databases (Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Scientific Information Database (SID), and Google scholar) were searched from inception until November 2021. A total of 12 studies with data on 1447 samples were met inclusion criteria and included in the final report. The average total PAHs recorded in various samples showed that PAHs concentration in most of the samples was above the standard limits and the mean CRs ranged from low to very high levels of health risks for both children and adults, which is associated with harmful epidemiological and environmental effects. Therefore, there is the need to take up the bodies or institutions involved in policy implementation and environmental management to reduce and prevent PAHs pollution agriculture products in Iran. Furthermore, gaps in literature have been addressed to provide a basis for future studies.


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